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Elements Of Plumbing | by Samuel Edward Dibble



In preparing this manuscript the author has had in mind the needs of young men having no technical instruction who are anxious to become proficient in the art of Plumbing. As a consequence each exercise is minutely described and illustrated; so much so, perhaps, that an experienced mechanic may find it too simple for skilled hands and a mature mind. But the beginner will not find the exercises too elaborately described and will profit by careful study. Years of experience and observation have shown the author that the methods herein described are entirely practical and are in common use today.

TitleElements Of Plumbing
AuthorSamuel Edward Dibble
PublisherMcGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc
Year1918
Copyright1918, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc
AmazonELEMENTS OF PLUMBING
-Preface
In preparing this manuscript the author has had in mind the needs of young men having no technical instruction who are anxious to become proficient in the art of Plumbing. As a consequence each exerci...
-Chapter I. Plumbing Fixtures And Trade
Modern plumbing as a trade is the arranging and running of pipes to supply pure water to buildings, the erecting of fixtures for the use of this supply, and the installing of other pipes for the resul...
-Plumbing Fixtures And Trade. Continued
To quote Thomas Maddock's Sons Co.: In 1876 Wm. Smith of San Francisco patented a water closet which employed a jet to assist in emptying the bowl and the development of this principle is due entirel...
-Chapter II. The Use And Care Of The Soldering Iron. Fluxes. Making Different Soldering Joints
The Soldering Iron The soldering iron is one of the first tools a plumber has to master. This tool is sometimes called a copper bit as it is made of copper; and so throughout this book the words ...
-Flux
A flux is used to clean the surfaces of joints and seams to be soldered, also to keep them from oxidizing and to help the metals to fuse. The following list gives the names of various fluxes in com...
-Plumbers' Soils And Paste
It is necessary when soldering or wiping a joint to cover the parts of pipe adjoining the portion that is to be soldered or wiped so that the solder will not stick to it. There are a number of prepara...
-Making Different Solder Joints
The tools used in making the different solder joints as described and illustrated in this chapter are shown in Fig. 14. Cup Joint The materials necessary for the work (Fig. 15): 12 inches of 1&f...
-Seams
A description of the making of wiped seams for lead-lined tanks will not be attempted as very few are made now. The plumber, however, is often called upon to make a seam joining two pieces of sheet le...
-Chapter III. Mixtures Of Solders For Soldering Iron And Wiping. Care Of Solders. Melting Points Of Metals And Alloys
The importance of good solder, that is, solder correctly mixed and thoroughly cleaned, should not be overlooked. Work is more quickly and neatly done and the job presents a more finished appearance wh...
-Chapter IV. Making And Care Of Wiping Cloths
A good wiping cloth is essential for wiping joints. The exact size and the flexibility of the cloth depend a great deal upon the mechanic who handles the cloth. Some mechanics like a stiff cloth, but ...
-Chapter V. Preparing And Wiping Joints
When the writer first started to carry the tools for a plumber and to prepare joints for wiping, the remark was often heard that joint wiping would soon be a thing of the past. I have heard this many ...
-Half-Inch Round Wiped Joint
Preparation Take 12 inches of 12-inch strong lead pipe and square off the ends with a rasp. Take the shave hook and scrape the center of the pipe perfectly bright; a space 3 inches each side...
-Round Joint - 45&Deg; To Right
The next position in which the beginner is to wipe a joint is on an angle of 45 to the right. Preparation To prepare this joint, proceed as in the horizontal round joint. I will enumerate a...
-Round Joint 45&Deg; - Left
When the preceding joint is well mastered and a number of good joints have been wiped, turn the pipe on an angle of 45 to the left. Preparation The preparation for this joint is exactly the...
-Round Joint - Vertical
Preparation This joint can be prepared exactly like the preceding one. In fact, the same piece of pipe can be used throughout. When preparing this joint the end that is to be on the bottom should b...
-Chapter VI. Preparing And Wiping Joints (Continued). Two-Inch Brass Ferrule
Materials The beginner should continue wiping the vertical round joint until he is able to obtain a symmetrical bulb. A joint should be wiped in each of the foregoing positions for exhibition purpo...
-Four-Inch Brass Ferrule
The 4-inch brass ferrule joint is the same as the 2-inch, except for size. The materials needed for this joint are 6 inches of 4-inch, 8-pound lead pipe, and one 4-inch brass ferrule, one full pot of ...
-Stop Cock
Materials Required The materials used for this joint are as follows: two pieces of 58-inch extra strong lead pipe 9 inches long, each; one 12-inch plug stop cock for lead pipe; paste ...
-Branch Joint
Materials Needed The materials necessary to complete this job are as follows: 12 inches of 58-inch extra strong lead pipe for the run; 6 inches of 12-inch extra strong lead pipe f...
-Branch Joint Placed Flat
When the wiper has mastered the branch joint placed at an angle of 45, he can proceed to wipe the joint placed in the next position, which is flat. Preparation The preparation of this joint...
-Branch Vertical
The materials, tools, and preparation for this joint placed in a vertical position are just the same, practically, as those in the preceding branch joints. One or two points wherein they differ are me...
-Branch Horizontal
The next position for this joint is to have the branch pipe horizontal and the run vertical. The materials, tools and preparation for this joint are the same as for the preceding ones. The supporting ...
-One And One-Half-Inch Branch Joint
Upon the completion of the small sized branch joint in its various angles, the 112-inch branch joint is to be wiped. This branch joint is wiped in the same positions as the 58 branch was...
-Branch Joint Wiped Flat
The materials required for this joint do not differ from the preceding one. If the pipe used for the branch joint at a 45 angle is in good shape, it can be used for this joint by simply changing ...
-Branch Held Vertical
After a number of the previous joints have been wiped successfully, the pipe is placed in such a position that the branch will be vertical. The supporting of the pipe to hold the joint in this positio...
-Run Held Vertically
When the vertical branch has been conquered and the wiper can get a good joint every time it is tried, the pipe can be changed to a different position. The run is placed in a vertical position and the...
-Bib
This joint is another brass to lead, and is the last single joint to be wiped in this course of joint wiping. Materials Needed The materials required for this joint are as follows: 10 inches of ...
-Drum Trap
The making of the drum trap will bring out the skill of the beginner. The entire trap is made of lead pipe. The lead will require a great deal of handling. Therefore, care must be exercised in all ope...
-Preparing Inlet Pipe
After the above joint is completed, the 112-in. branch inlet pipe is prepared and wiped in place. The center of this branch is marked on the 4-inch pipe and a hole is tapped in the pipe, using ...
-The Practical Use Of The Preceding Exercises
In the foregoing exercises, I have confined myself to the actual work of making the various joints. Now I will explain the practical use of them. Soldering Iron The soldering iron is a tool that...
-Chapter VII. Laying Terra-Cotta And Making Connections To Public Sewers. Water Connections To Mains In Streets. Terra-Cotta Pipe
One of the first pieces of work which a plumber is called upon to do, when building operations commence, is to run in the terra-cotta sewer from the street sewer into the foundation wall. Fig....
-Laying Of Pipe
The pipe should be laid on the bottom of the trench to a pitch of at least 14 inch per foot fall. In laying, the start should be made at the street sewer with hubs of pipe toward the building. ...
-Laying Pipe In Tunnels
Fig. 40. - Pushing pipe through tunnel. If the pipe must be run through a tunnel and there are perhaps three or four joints that cannot be reached, they should be put into place as follows: Th...
-Table Of Standard Terra-Cotta Pipe
Size Thickness,inches Weight per ft.,pounds Depth ofsocket Annular space 3 12 7 112 14 4 12 9 ...
-Water Connection And Service
Tapping Main The water service for a building is put in at the same time as the sewer is connected and run into the house. For a 114-service pipe a 12-inch tap is furnished. The water...
-Laying Pipe
The trench should be dug straight out from the house so the pipe can be laid and the main tapped straight out from the building. The water companies keep a record of these taps so that in case of trou...
-Chapter VIII. Installing Of French Or Sub-Soil Drains
Fig. 45. - Sub-soil drain. When a building is erected on a site that is wet or springy, some means of carrying off the surplus water in the ground must be provided for, or the basement of the ...
-Chapter IX. Storm And Sanitary Drainage With Sewage Disposal In View
The accompanying drawing of storm and sanitary drains should be studied in detail by the reader. The location of each trap and fitting should be studied carefully and the reason that it is put in that...
-Storm And Sanitary Drainage With Sewage Disposal In View. Continued
Caulking Joint In Horizontal Position It is necessary in a great many cases to caulk a joint in a position where the lead would run out of the joint unless provision were made to hold it in...
-Chapter X. Soil And Waste Pipes And Vents. Tests. Soil Pipes
The term soil pipes means pipe that receives the discharge from water closets. The size of a soil pipe for ordinary dwellings should be 4 inches. ...
-Size Of Soil Pipes
One to three closets - 4-inch XX cast-iron. Four to eight closets - 5-inch XX cast-iron. Eight to twelve closets - 6-inch XX cast-iron. There are cas...
-Soil-Pipe Fittings
Soil-pipe fittings can be had from stock almost to suit the conditions. I will enumerate a few. The names of these fittings should be familiar to the mechanic so that when ordering he can give the cor...
-Wrought-Iron And Steel Pipe
This pipe comes in about 18-foot lengths and fittings of the following makes and shapes, and their use is fully explained. The lengths of pipe come with a thread on each end and a coupling screwed on ...
-Size Of Waste Pipes
Urinals................... 2 inches Kitchen sink........... 2 inches Slop sink................ 3 inches Receptacles............ 11&f...
-Vents
Fig. 55. - Circuit vent. Vents are the most important pipes in the plumbing system. Modern plumbing successfully attempts to make living in crowded and thickly populated districts, as well as ...
-Chapter XI. House Traps, Fresh-Air Connections, Drum Traps, And Non-Syphoning Traps
The house trap is a deep seal trap placed inside the foundation wall, and intersects the house drain and house sewer. The trap is placed at this point for a number of reasons: first, to keep sewer gas...
-Fresh-Air Connections
The term fresh-air inlet is, as its name implies, an inlet for fresh air. It is placed directly on the house side of the main trap. The connections made vary considerably. A few good connections in ...
-Drum Trap Use
The use of the drum trap is very handy to the plumber as well as efficient and practicable when installed. The trap can be purchased without any outlets or inlets, so the plumber can put them in accor...
-Non-Syphoning Trap
Fig. 62. - Flask trap. Fig. 63. - Clean-sweep trap. After years of experimenting to produce a trap that would not syphon without venting, we find in use to...
-Chapter XII. Pipe Threading
The proper cutting of threads on pipe is overlooked by some mechanics. There are many different kinds of dies and different kinds of pipe to contend with. Steel pipe threads very hard and the adjustab...
-Pipe Threading. Continued
Nipple Holders Take a piece of 1-inch pipe about 12 inches long and on one end cut a thread that is 2 inches long. Take a 1-inch coupling and screw it on this end until the end of the pipe is almos...
-Chapter XIII. Cold-Water Supply. Test
The supplying of cold water to buildings and then piping it to the various fixtures makes a very interesting study. We have gone over the methods of laying and piping for the house service pipe. We wi...
-Chapter XIV. Hot-Water Heaters. Instantaneous Coil And Storage Tanks. Return Circulation, Hot-Water Lines And Expansion
The problem of supplying hot water to plumbing fixtures is one that has required years of study. Each job today demands considerable thought to make it a perfect and satisfactory hot-water system. We ...
-Chapter XV. Insulation Of Piping To Eliminate Conduction, Radiation, Freezing, And Noise
Pipe Covering Pipe covering is another important branch of plumbing. A few years ago heating pipes were the only pipes that it was thought necessary to cover. The ever-increasing demands made by th...
-Chapter XVI. "Durham" Or "Screw Pipe" Work. Pipe And Fittings
Durham or screw pipe work is the name used to denote that the job is installed by the use of wrought-iron or steel screw pipe. We speak of a cast-iron job meaning that cast-iron pipe was used fo...
-Piping
The pipe used in Durham work is galvanized extra heavy, or standard wrought-iron, or steel pipe. It is almost impossible to recognize wrought-iron from steel pipe without the aid of a chemical or a ma...
-Fittings
The fittings used in screw pipe work are cast-iron recess type (see Fig. 54). The fittings are so made that the inside bores of the pipe and the fittings come in direct line with each other, thus maki...
-Hangers And Supports
The hanging of screw pipe is a very essential point. The taking of the strain off from a fitting or line of pipe by the use of a hanger is the means of avoiding serious trouble after a job is complete...
-Measurements
The proper installation of screw pipe work requires getting correct and accurate measurements. Every plumber is or should be able to get correct center to center, center to end, end to end, center to ...
-Fixture Connections
The fixture connections when screw pipe is used are necessarily different than when cast-iron pipe is used. A brass nipple is wiped on a piece of lead pipe and then screwed into the fitting left for t...
-Chapter XVII. Gas Fitting, Pipe And Fittings, Threading, Measuring, And Testing. Gas And Its Use In Buildings
Gas is in common use in all classes of buildings today. Dwellings use it for cooking and illuminating, factories, office buildings, and public buildings for power. In some parts of the country natural...
-Gas Fitting, Pipe And Fittings, Threading, Measuring, Testing. Gas And Its Use In Buildings. Continued
The measurements on the piping sketch, Fig. 81, are taken from the accompanying sketch of a dwelling, and if they were to be actually put in, they would fit. The reader would do well to copy this sket...
-Shower-Bath Connections
The sketches show clearly the methods employed to make a shower-bath waste and stall water-tight. The shower bath, as a separate fixture, is in use and the demand for it as a separate fixture is incre...
-Chapter XVIII. Plumbing Codes
The work of plumbing has a direct result on the health of the occupants of buildings; therefore in order that the plumbing may not be installed improperly and impair the health of the occupants, it is...
-Plumbing Codes. Part 2
Sec. 8. Floor Drains. - Floor or other drains will only be permitted when it can be shown to the satisfaction of the department of building that their use is absolutely necessary, and arrangements mad...
-Plumbing Codes. Part 3
Sec. 18. Joints on Soil and Waste Pipes. - Connection on lead and cast-iron pipe shall be made with brass sleeve or ferrule, of the same size as the lead pipe inserted in the hub of the iron pipe, and...
-Plumbing Codes. Part 4
No re-vent from traps under bell traps will be required. In any building having a sewer connection with a private or public sewer used for bell-trap connections or floor drainage only, a 2-inch rel...







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previous page: Safety In Building Construction | by The Travelers Insurance Company
  
page up: Construction and Plumbing Books
  
next page: Modern Plumbing Illustrated | by R. M. Starbuck