Soil-pipe fittings can be had from stock almost to suit the conditions. I will enumerate a few. The names of these fittings should be familiar to the mechanic so that when ordering he can give the correct name. 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄6, 1⁄4 bend, sanitary tee, tapped tee, side outlet fitting, return bend, cross branches, double Y, double TY, traps. The uses of these cast-iron fittings perhaps are obvious, but a word about the use of each one will be of service.

The 1⁄4 bend is used to change the direction of run of pipe 90°. A long-sweep 1⁄4 bend is used on work requiring the best practice. 1⁄8, 1⁄16, and 1⁄6 bends are used to change the direction of pipe 45°;, 221⁄2°, and 162⁄3°. Two 1⁄8 bends should be used in preference to one 1⁄4 bend where there is sufficient room. Side outlet 1⁄4 bend is used for waste connection. They can be had with an outlet on either side of the heel. Their use is not recommended.

Return bends are used on fresh-air inlets. Tees are used for vents only. Ys are used wherever possible. The use of a Y-branch together with an 1⁄8 bend for a 90° connection with the main line is always preferable to a TY or, as they are commonly called, sanitary T. A tapped fitting gets its name because it is tapped for iron pipe thread. Tapped fittings are used for venting and should not be used for waste unless the tap enters the fitting at an angle of 45°.

These fittings and pipe are joined by first caulking with oakum and pouring, with one continuous pour, the hub full of molten metal. When cool, the lead should be set and then caulked around the pipe and around the hub.

The amount of lead and oakum required for various-sized joints is as follows:

Pipe size.............234 568 1012 15
Pounds of lead....11⁄221⁄4333⁄441⁄2671⁄29111⁄4
Oakum (ounce)...468101216202430

Rust Joints

The plumber is called upon to run cast-iron pipe in places where lead and oakum will not be of service for the joints. In cases of this kind, a rust joint is made. This "rust" is made according to the following formula:

  • 1 part flour of sulphur.
  • 1 part sal-ammoniac.
  • 98 parts iron borings (free from grease).

This mixture is made the consistency of cement, using water to mix thoroughly and bring all parts into contact with each other. When it hardens, it becomes very hard and makes a tight joint which overcomes the objections to lead and oakum joints.