Upon the completion of the small sized branch joint in its various angles, the 11⁄2-inch branch joint is to be wiped. This branch joint is wiped in the same positions as the 5⁄8 branch was wiped. The pipe being larger, there is more solder for the wiper to handle, and the edges to keep clean and to wipe are longer.

Materials Needed

The materials needed for this job are 12 inches of 11⁄2-inch light lead pipe for the run, and 6 inches of 11⁄2-inch pipe for the branch, paste, paper, solder, and catch pan.

Tools Needed

The tools necessary for this job are the saw, rasp, shave hook, bending irons, drift plug, hammer, ladle, wiping cloths, and tap borer.


To an experienced wiper, the procedure of preparing this joint and wiping it are so near like the 5⁄8-branch joint that a detailed description would be unnecessary; but for the benefit of the beginner, I will repeat the details as they apply to this particular joint and thereby avoid any error. We will take the preparation of the run first. Square the two ends of the pipe with the rasp. Mark off the center of the pipe. With the round part of the rasp, held at right angles with the pipe, proceed to rasp down the crown of pipe where the center mark was made. Do not rasp through the wall of the pipe, but just enough so that the tap borer will enter the pipe with only a slight pressure. With the tap borer, tap a hole large enough for the bending irons to enter. Now proceed to enlarge the hole, first forcing the edges up and then forcing them back, making the hole larger and making a collar around the hole at the same time. Continue to open the pipe until the aperture is large enough for the branch pipe to enter. The bending irons must not come into contact with the inside wall of the pipe, for if they do the inside bore will be marred and be very ragged. As these joints are usually used on waste lines, these ragged places make an ideal place for lint and grease to collect and cause a stoppage. To make the inside of the hole even, a piece of 1⁄2-inch pipe can be used in place of the bending irons. To cut out the oval from a piece of paper to fit the joint, fold the paper and cut out one-half of the oval. Now unfold the paper and the complete oval is obtained. The measurements of the oval are taken from Fig. 30, 11⁄8 inches each side of the branch lengthwise of the run. These two lines are connected with a curved line as shown. This curved line can be made with the shave hook. Take the large edge of the shave hook and roll it along between the lines to be joined. A little practice will perfect one in doing this quickly. The beginner should make a number of these ovals so that he can get them perfect. The graceful appearance of this joint depends upon the neatness with which it is prepared. I do not want the beginner to think that a graceful shape of the joint is all that is to be desired or that it is the most essential point. Further along, perhaps, more vital requirements will be brought out and the beginner will be made acquainted with them.

The ends of the 6-inch piece are now squared with the rasp. The edges of one end are rasped off as shown in the sketch, making a wedged fit into the run. This end is then cleaned with the shave hook. Paper is then pasted on to cover the pipe except the 11⁄8 inches cleaned on the end. This cleaned part forms part of the joint, therefore no paste or paper must be put on it. The pipe is now fitted into the run and the collar beaten against it with the bending irons. The run is now cleaned with the shave hook for about 3 inches each side of the center. The paper oval cut out is now pasted on the joint. The paste and paper are then allowed to dry before they are handled further.


The supporting of this joint, which is placed with the branch on an angle of 45°; pointing away from the wiper, is not a difficult matter. The beginner can use his own ingenuity for supporting the pipe if conditions do not warrant the using of the methods previously described.


The solder should now be tested for heat. If the solder is at the proper heat, the ladle is taken and heated. Take a ladle full of solder and drop the solder on the joint. The lead of which this branch joint is made is considerably lighter than any lead that has been used before. Therefore, the beginner must drop the solder on carefully, making sure that the solder is not dropped on the same spot, for a hole can be burned through the pipe very quickly. The ladle must be kept moving, then the solder will not burn through the pipe. The heat is got up on the pipe by dropping the solder on the run and on the branch, catching the surplus solder on the catch cloth and heating the under side of the joint with it. To form the joint, distribute the solder and then wipe it into shape. Notice that I said wipe it into shape. A beginner is very apt to try to push or poke it into shape. This must not be done as it has a tendency to make the joint lumpy. All the edges are wiped off clean first, then the body of the joint is shaped and wiped. When forming the joint, be sure that the bottom and the top are symmetrical. Do not have one-half larger than the other. The last wiping strokes are made swiftly and rapidly. If the wiper will watch his movements and note the results and then try to improve them, keeping in mind that a symmetrical joint is wanted with thin edges, perfection in wiping will come much more quickly than if no attention is paid to the strokes made when wiping.