After the above joint is completed, the 11⁄2-in. branch inlet pipe is prepared and wiped in place. The center of this branch is marked on the 4-inch pipe and a hole is tapped in the pipe, using the tap borer. A hole large enough to admit the bending irons is made. The hole is enlarged with the bending irons, bending the lead first up, then back. A piece of 1⁄2-inch iron pipe can be used as a tool to finish the opening. The iron pipe is larger in diameter than the bending irons and leaves a more finished surface. The opening is made of sufficient size to admit the rasped end of the 11⁄2-inch pipe. When using the irons to enlarge the opening in the pipe, be sure not to bruise any part of the trap. The 11⁄2-inch pipe is now taken. The ends of this pipe are squared with the rasp. The drift plug is then driven through the pipe to take out any bruises or flattened places. The edge of one end is rasped off to fit the opening made in the 4-inch pipe. The beginner must strive to make a perfect fit. The accuracy with which these preparations are made is what helps in a large degree to bring about a successful job. The next operation is to paper the parts not to be wiped. The sizes of the joint should be followed as shown on the sketch. The pipe is first shaved with the shave hook, after which the paper is pasted on. No paste is allowed to get on the joint proper. The beginner should by this time have formed the habit of being neat with his work. Therefore the getting of paste on the joint surface shows that he is not as neat or as far advanced as he should be.


The drum is laid lengthwise on the bench and blocks are put on each side to keep it from rolling, the branch uppermost. The 11⁄2-inch pipe is held in position the same way as the vertical branch was held. The catch pan is put under the drum to catch the surplus solder.


Splash the solder on the branch pipe, also on the drum. The burning through of the drum is an easy matter. Therefore do not keep dropping the solder on one place, but keep the ladle moving continually. With the catch cloth draw the solder up on the branch covering the top edge of the prepared surface. Splashing the solder on this top edge melts the solder already on and allows it to run down on the 4-inch pipe where it is caught with the cloth and again brought up on the top edge of the branch. When the solder works freely all around the joint, the top edge is wiped clean and even. Then any surplus solder is wiped off. The bottom edge is next wiped clean, after which the body of the joint is wiped into shape, together with both edges. The edges are wiped very thin so that when the paper is removed the outline of the joint stands out very distinctly. A thick edge on a joint gives an unworkmanlike appearance to the work. The joint is finished with a cross wipe.

The other joints are prepared and wiped the same as the one just completed. The 11⁄2-inch branch connection taken out of the bottom of the trap is bent. As this is the first time it has been necessary to bend lead pipe in these jobs, I will cover this operation in detail. The pipe is first straightened and the drift plug driven through it. The pipe is marked where the bend is to be made. The bending spring, size 11⁄2 inches, is put into the pipe, the center of the spring coming about where the bend is to be made. The pipe is then heated where it was marked to be bent. The proper heat for this pipe is just so that the hand cannot stand being laid against it. The pipe is held in the hands and on the end nearest the heat is hit against the floor at an angle. The pipe, with the first blow, will start to bend. With a few more strokes the desired bend will be obtained. The bending spring can now be pulled out. Put a little water in the pipe, then put one end of the spring in the vise, twist the pipe, and the spring will come out when the pipe is pulled away from it. The bending spring holds the pipe cylindrical while it is being bent. Without the spring, the pipe would be badly crushed at the bend and rendered almost unfit for service. Another good way to bend pipe is to plug one end and fill the pipe full of sand, then plug the open end. The pipe is then heated where the bend is to be made. The pipe can then be bent over the knee. When all the joints are wiped, the paper should be taken off and the lead cleaned with sand and water. The trap is now complete except the brass clean-out to be soldered on the top. The inside of the trap should not have any rough edges or drops of solder in it.

Fig. 34.  Drum trap. Fig. 34. - Drum trap.

There are two other drum traps to be made. The materials needed are the same as for the above trap except for 18 inches more of 11⁄2-inch lead pipe. The support, preparation, and wiping are the same. The beginner by this time should feel very well acquainted with lead and solder. Therefore, the details of these two drum traps can be left for the beginner to work out for himself. The sketches are very distinct and readable and will be of considerable assistance. The beginner should make these traps.

Points To Be Remembered

  1. First, use 4-inch lead pipe, 8 pounds to the foot.
  2. Second, dresser and spring are new tools. Study their use.
  3. Third, gradually work the trap into shape with the dresser.
  4. Fourth, plug the hole with a piece of lead pipe.
  5. Fifth, prepare and wipe the plugged hole first.
  6. Sixth, prepare and wipe the 11⁄2-inch branches.
  7. Seventh, special care should be taken to keep the work neat.
  8. Eighth, two ways of using the bending spring.
  9. Ninth, wipe thin edges on joints.
  10. Tenth, do not handle finished work.
  11. Eleventh, clean and finish the work neatly.