Fig. 305. All Porcelain Plug and Chain Basin.

Fig. 305. All Porcelain Plug and Chain Basin.

Figures 302, 303, 304 and 305 represent in section and in perspective all-porcelain plug and chain basins. Figs. 302, 303, 304 and 305.

Figure 306 represents a plug and chain basin with a flushing rim supply. The disadvantages of this arrangement are quite as great as the advantages. Water cannot be drawn into a separate vessel from this form of supply, and this is often quite important. Moreover, the flushing rim greatly increases the cost of the fixture. The object of the flushing rim is to cause a partial cleansing of the sides of the basin by the running water before filling.

Fig. 306. Plug and Chain Basin with a Flushing Rim Supply.

Fig. 306. Plug and Chain Basin with a Flushing Rim Supply.

Constructing the overflow pipe in one piece with the basin, as shown in Figs. 302 to 305, gives a great advantage. The danger of defective overflow connections is thus avoided, and the setting of the basin is very much easier. A closure of the overflow holes of this basin affords an actual temporary safeguard against the evils arising from evaporation of the water seal caused by* trap ventilation, where a fixture is left unused for any length of time, provided the outlet be also tightly closed and both closures be closely watched. But in this case the danger of damage from overflow appears.

Figure 307 represents a basin with a plug and stem outlet, the earliest form constructed by the writer.

Fig. 307. Basin with a Plug and Stem Outlet.

Fig. 307. Basin with a Plug and Stem Outlet.

(b) Waste Cock Outlet.

Here the outlet passageway is controlled by an ordinary ground brass water-cock.

The general type may be further subdivided into three kinds: (1) Those having perpendicular waste-cock moved by a rod passing through the marble slab; (2) those having a horizontal waste-cock worked from the front of the stand below the bowl; and (3) those in which the waste-cock is operated by a lever movement.

As an illustration of the first kind we have the so-called "Boston Waste," Fig. 308, which is very popular. There is probably no form of basin fitting more faulty in principle than this. It contains two independent, inaccessible and invisible foul water passages, one forming the overflow passage, and the other the outlet passageway between the strainer and the waste-cock.

This latter passage forms an elongated cesspool for the defilement of the clean water entering the basin. After using the fixture, the waste water escaping through this channel deposits part of its dirt, particularly floating matters and soapsuds, all along its sides, and leaves it there to be taken up and applied in a diluted solution to the hands and face of the next comer. Six wiped solder joints, one putty joint and five threaded joints, making twelve in all, are required to adjust the waste pipes of the regular Boston Waste apparatus and its trap below the basin slab cannot be relied upon as a sure seal at all times against sewer gas, because we cannot depend upon its always being turned off after use, this device becomes valueless.

Fig. 308. Waste Cock Outlet Basin, the  Boston Waste.

Fig. 308. Waste-Cock Outlet Basin, the "Boston Waste."

No wonder the plumber is often in requisition to keep in order such complicated machines so long as they are allowed to remain in use Not the least of its defects is that the passageway for the waste water through the ground cock is usually so small (about a quarter of an inch wide in some types) that the least deposit of sediment is liable to radically impede this meagre flow.

Fig. 309. The Waste Cock Outlet Basin with Syphon Overflow.

Fig. 309. The Waste-Cock Outlet Basin with Syphon Overflow.

Fig. 310. Waste Cock Outlet Basin with Horizontal Plug.

Fig. 310. Waste-Cock Outlet Basin with Horizontal Plug.

The "Boston Waste" cannot be too highly condemned and should be prohibited in all plumbing ordinances, as should all restricted outlet basins, because with these allowed, no proper sewerage system can ever be attained. The great extent of the use of fixtures constructed on the principle of the "Boston Waste," in spite of its high cost, shows how little knowledge the public has in these matters, and how important it is that their attention should be called to them.

In Fig. 309 we have the Boston Waste complicated with still another disorder. The overflow pipe, instead of opening into the upper part of the basin, descends and re-enters the waste pipe on the inner side of the waste cock. This doubles the length of the inaccessible cesspool between the outlet and the waste-cock. Its object was apparently to trap the overflow pipe; but as the waste-cock cannot be relied upon as a sure seal at all times against sewer-gas, because we cannot depend upon its always being turned off after use, this device becomes valueless.

Figure 310 represents the second kind of waste-cock outlet basin in which the waste-cock is horizontal, and operated through the riser or woodwork of the washstand. This arrangement necessitates encasing the basin "to some extent in finish, a requirement which adds another to its many disadvantages. In other respects it is similar to the "Boston Waste" already described.

Figure 311 illustrates by a special apparatus, possibly never executed in its entire perfection, the third kind of waste-cock outlet basin. The fixture shown, is an English invention devised by some one who had seen Mr. Bunyon's sewer already described. It is useful to illustrate the evils of over-complication. The machinery is moved by cranks and levers connected with a pedal in front of the stand. How the inventor could have imagined anyone would be found willing to pay for so complicated a piece of brass-work is difficult to understand. In the device a lid is employed to cover the basin when it is not in use, and there is a thick rubber gasket not quite so large and costly as an automobile tire around the basn to form a sewer gas tight packed joint with the lid which is held pressed against the packing when closed by a strong spring. Two waste-cocks, one for the main outlet, and the other for the overflow, and one or more supply cocks are used, and these cocks are connected with the lid in such a manner that, when the lid is raised or lowered, the supply and waste-cocks are respectively opened and shut. The waste-cock thus does not serve as a seal against sewer gas, and a separate trap, not however shown, would be necessary. The lid mechanism would require the strength of a stone crusher to operate this net work of valves and levers even when new, and it never seems to have occurred to the inventor that dirty water would soon take away what little mobility they might have in the beginning.

Fig. 311. Waste Cock Outlet Basin with Lever Movements.

Fig. 311. Waste-Cock Outlet Basin with Lever Movements.

Waste Cock Outlet Basins.