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Plumbing And Household Sanitation | by J. Pickering Putnam



Since the purpose of this course is to treat of the best and simplest method of obtaining healthy homes and to show ' by what means the utmost convenience in plumbing work may be obtained with safety and economy, no attempt will be made to describe in catalog form all the interesting appliances manufactured to-day. Indeed, it would be impossible in a small volume to do even partial justice to their almost countless numbers. Each enterprising manufacturer requires for the cataloging of his sole individual productions, a ponderous volume, sumptuous and costly enough to pay for a small king's ransom. Before long, of course, in accordance with a law of economics which allows of no exception, a very big Trust will take charge of the whole business and place the goods before the public in a simplified form. Then the consumers will constitute the stockholders and price lists will become less mysterious and more satisfactory.

TitlePlumbing And Household Sanitation
AuthorJ. Pickering Putnam
PublisherDoubleday, Page & Company
Year1911
Copyright1911, J. Pickering Putnam
AmazonPlumbing and household sanitation

By J. Pickering Putnam

Member Of The Boston Society Of Architects And Of The American Institute Of Architects

A Course Of Lectures Delivered Before The Plumbing School Of The North End Union, Boston

Plumbing And Household Sanitation 3

Garden City New York Doubleday, Page & Company

To The Boston Society Of Architects Whose Untiring And Disinterested Efforts In Behalf of Better Building Legislation Entitle Them To Public Recognition And Gratitude, This Little Work Is Respectfully Dedicated.

-Preface
Since the purpose of this course is to treat of the best and simplest method of obtaining healthy homes and to show ' by what means the utmost convenience in plumbing work may be obtained with safety ...
-Preface. Continued
Pipe dealers are financially interested in maintaining the elaborate system of piping required by back venting and main house trap installation, while plumbers have nothing to gain by it, but r...
-Introduction
At the time when these lectures were first delivered, in the winter of 1899-1900, the plumbing laws of Bos-ton and of nearly every other city of the United States enforced a system of piping and trapp...
-Introduction. Continued
Under such circumstances street air passing through the sewers and house drains becomes filtered by them and emerges from the pipes freer from its dust and germs than when it entered, and must in fact...
-Chapter I. Science And Art In Plumbing
It is held as a fundamental principle in science that every opinion, before it is admitted as true and taught to others, shall first be established by proper proofs, which must not in any way run cou...
-Science And Art In Plumbing. Continued
*A further consideration of this subject is given In my pamphlet entitled The Outlook for the Artisan and His Art, published by C. H. Kerr & Co., Chicago, Ill. Fig. 5. A Fourteenth Century Ci...
-Chapter II. Influence On The Community Of Sanitary Engineeing
A mastery of the principles of household sanitation is essential not only for the welfare of the individual owner and occupants, but also to a greater or less extent for that of all neighboring proper...
-Chapter III. Bacteria
Before we can properly judge of the relative merits of different systems of sewerage and plumbing, or of different kinds of appliances used in them, or of the effect of sewage decomposition upon our h...
-Bacteria. Part 2
Some species of bacteria have, in addition to the power of reproduction by simple fissure, a second method by means of spores which develop within them, and the manner in which the spores grow serves ...
-Bacteria. Part 3
Fig. 29 shows the cycle of life and the part played therein by the different kinds of bacteria. At the bottom of the circle is mother earth. It contains some of the principal ingredients which form...
-Bacteria. Part 4
The explosion of gunpowder, nitroglycerine, dynamite and other compounds of saltpetre also dissipates free nitrogen in the air, though saltpetre itself is a good food for plants. So while hostile a...
-Chapter IV. Sewer Air
BEFORE taking up my subject where we left off at our last lecture we will look at a picture illustrating two systems of plumbing as radically different from each other as any two things can be (Figs. ...
-Sewer Air. Part 2
Fig. 35. Samples of disease germs supposed to exist in an unventilated sewer. I made the trip just as you see presented in the picture. The truck in which we rode was propelled by the water itself,...
-Sewer Air. Part 3
*Carbonic or carbonous oxid according to the older terminology. Therefore the dangerous element in sewer air must be sought in what is called organic vapor, which is an indefinite name for somethin...
-Sewer Air. Part 4
*Vagaries of Sanitary Science. The doctor has also a kind word for the plumber of that day, of whom he wrote: This guide, philosopher and friend proceeded without delay to fabricate and set trap...
-Sewer Air. Part 5
I think anyone making a full and careful study of the records now obtainable of the effects of breathing sewer-air must come to a conclusion somewhat as follows: The danger from inhaling sewer-gas is ...
-Sewer Air. Part 6
The accumulation from year to year of similar records brings the evidence closer and closer to the value of positive demonstration, and at any rate it will be wise for the public to accept them as suc...
-Chapter V. Investigations Of Modern Scientists On The Question Of The Passage Of Gases And Germs Through Water Traps
Dr. Carmichael's experiments were made to ascertain to what extent the contents of the soil pipe, both gases and germs, are able to pass through a sound water trap. Dr. Andrew Fergus had shown that...
-Can Bacteria Pass Through A Trap
We now come to the much more important question as to whether organic particles, bacteria, can pass through the trap. A simple but crude method of examining the question consists of a microscopical co...
-Studies Of Pumpelly And Smyth
The experiments of Professors Pumpelly and Smyth for the National Board of Health at Washington are extremely interesting and fully corroborate those of Carmichael. In their first series made to de...
-Can Bacteria Disentangle Themselves From Liquids
In another form the apparatus shown in Fig. 45 was used to investigate whether a current of air could take up germs from a liquid at rest. The sewage was placed in a U-shaped tube which formed the tra...
-Further Studies Of Pumpelly And Smyth
The studies of Pumpelly and Smyth on soils as filters of different compositions and structures are very important and were made to ascertain: 1. Their action as filters for air or gases, generally....
-Chapter VI. Micro-Organisms In Sewer Air
The methods for the study of micro-organic life in air are of comparatively recent date and are daily being improved. According to Roechling about six sets of investigations into the bacterial flora o...
-Views Of Other Authorities
Dr. A. Jacobi in a paper read before the Congress of American Physicians and Surgeons at Washington as early as 1894, sums up as follows: I may be finally permitted to add the oral testimony of mo...
-Views Of Other Authorities. Part 2
J. McG. Smith (Sixth Annual Report of the Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and Sewerage, 1893) found as an average of 20 tests 225 germs per liter in the sewers of Sydney, the particular forms being...
-Views Of Other Authorities. Part 3
bacteria in air over foaming liquids. B. prodigiosus per liter. Experiment. In liquid. In air. 1 .......................................
-Chapter VII. The Disconnecting Trap And The Reasons Why Its Use Should Be Prohibited By Law
HE fact that the air of sewers is freer from all forms of micro-organisms than is the outer air above them accounts for the immunity with which peo* ple may work in well ventilated sewers, and explain...
-The Disconnecting Trap And The Reasons Why Its Use Should Be Prohibited By Law. Part 2
As has already been pointed out, the danger from the inspiration of sewer air is generally believed to lie in predisposing the system to harm from disease germs coming from other sources. This predisp...
-The Disconnecting Trap. The Reasons Why Its Use Should Be Prohibited By Law. Part 3
It has been found by analysis of air containing large numbers of bacteria that showers greatly reduce their numbers, as it reduces the amount of dust in the air, and that prolonged rains may clear the...
-The Disconnecting Trap. Reasons Why Its Use Should Be Prohibited By Law. Part 4
Thus we see that the sewers really form vast filters, as it were, for clearing the air which passes through them of germs of disease, and it is the province of the science of sanitary engineering to m...
-Chapter VIII. Sewers
Figures 52 and 53 represent sections of large Paris sewers. They carry both the house drainage of all kinds and the street washings and rain or storm water. They come under the combined system of se...
-Sewers. Continued
Fig. 57. Bruneseau visiting the old Paris sewers. Fig. 58. Junction of old Paris sewers. From Hugo's Les Miserables. Fig. 58 gives the point of junction of several of these old sewers...
-Chapter IX. Traps
A trap is a siphon placed in the drain to catch some of the water discharged from a fixture and form with it a barrier for the entrance of air from the drains into the house. The water forms what is c...
-Classification Of Requirements Of Traps
A proper trap should possess the following characteristics : (1) It should do its work by means of a water seal alone. (2) It should be self-scouring. (3) It should be capable of resisting th...
-Classification Of The Different Kinds Of Traps
Traps may be divided into two principal classes: I. Mechanical traps. II. Water seal traps. Each of these may be again subdivided as follows: I. Mechanical traps may be subdivided into: ...
-Classification Of The Different Kinds Of Traps. Part 2
(b) Gravity Valve Trap. Fig. 66 shows a valve trap invented by Col. Waring, but afterwards frankly condemned by him in his general condemnation of all mechanical traps. The valve chamber is, howeve...
-Classification Of The Different Kinds Of Traps. Part 3
Figs. 83 and 84 represent the ordinary bell sink trap, and Fig. 85 is an improvement thereon in having the water seal independent of the grating. In both of these traps the water seal is too small. Bo...
-Chapter XL. Water Seal Traps
WATER seal traps bear the same relation to mechanical traps that the hopper water-closet bears to pan, valve and plunger closets. They accomplish their work of removing the wastes and excluding sewer ...
-Chapter XII. Street Gullies And Siphonable Traps
THE next figures are taken from Baldwin Latham's Sanitary Engineering and show sediment traps used for Street Gullies. These traps ought to gradually disappear from use and will do so as soon as com...
-Street Gullies And Siphonable Traps. Continued
Fig. 117. Fig, 118. Fig. 119. Fig. 120. Fig. 121 Fig. 122. Fig. 123. Figure 116 shows a gully used by Mr. Denton for many years, having advantages similar ...
-Chapter XIII. Seal Retaining Traps
We have considered briefly the various agencies which tend to destroy the seals of traps, and have presented several vital objections to the methods of protection generally attempted. Internally al...
-Evolution Of A Permanent Anti-Siphon Water-Seal Trap
To obtain these results, without internal complication or external aid, is only possible by taking full advantage of the various laws which govern the action of fluids in plumbing. The difference in t...
-Evolution Of A Permanent Anti-Siphon Water-Seal Trap. Part 2
This requirement confines us to the use of some form of plain piping, either straight or bent, in the construction of the trap. In the second place it is evident that a sufficient amount of this pi...
-Evolution Of A Permanent Anti-Siphon Water-Seal Trap. Part 3
At each return bend of the pipe the wave created by the siphonage is partly reflected back, and broken up, and the air thus finds an opportunity to force its way through to the outlet without apprecia...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain
Showing Aggregate Loss of Water in Traps in Fractions of an Inch After Each Siphoning Action. Number of Each Test. Traps Tested 1 ...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 2
Fig. 173. Fig. 174. Fig. 175. Fig. 177. Figs. 164 to 177 inclusive. Horizontal Traps with Combined Curved and Straight Partitions. We have found that these defects can be ob...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 3
Therefore the trap will resist siphonage as long as there is any water way at all left in the trap. Yet when the discharge is entirely stopped by sediment, or retarded to a point of inconvenience, it ...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 4
Fig. 189 Fig. 189a. Plan and section of thirteen-inch trap without the partitions. The actual course of the water in these cases was, however, altogether different from our th...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 5
Floor Trap, with Tile Cover, set in Tile Work, and made tight by a large Elastic Gasket. Fig. 205. Floor Trap, shown with cover and Gasket removed. Fig. 206. Fig. 207. F...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 6
Fig. 228. Fig. 229. Fig. 230. The simplest forms of our Securitas trap are shown in Figs. 233 to 237. As will be seen by the drawings, all parts of the water way have an area su...
-Experiments On Siphonage. Severest Strain. Part 7
The same journal, in a later issue, publishes a letter of D. J. Ebbets, in which he writes: Now there are several traps that may safely be used to defy the severest siphonage encountered in actual pr...
-Chapter XIV. The Two Plumbing Systems
THERE are, as I have already indicated, two schools or systems of plumbing which may be characterized as the complex system shown in Fig. 32, and the simple system of Fig. 33, the first involving ...
-Chapter XV. Trap Testing Apparatus
Siphonage and Back Pressure. T HE trap vent pipe was, as I have said, originally supposed to afford a reliable cure for siphonage, and under that supposition the trap-vent law was made, and is in oper...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 2
To test the effect on traps below of emptying the tank after the manner of a flush tank, a 4-inch outlet valve and waste pipe were fitted up in the manner shown. Outlets were left on each story bel...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 3
Fig. 246. 2 in. Pot. Fig. 247. 2 in. Pot. Fig. 248. 3 in. Pot. Fig. 249. 8 in. Pot. Tests for Siphonage on Traps of Different Sizes. The tests for siphonage were made ...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 4
We found that the discharge of either or both closets instantly broke the seal of an unvented S-trap whether the soil-pipe were the full length or shortened to half its length by opening the middle pl...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 5
With Vent No. 2 open and stop-cock closed, it was not possible to remove any water from the S-trap, but with Vent No. 2 closed and stop-cock open, the seal of the trap was broken S-trap with vent show...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 6
Fig. 258. Fig. 259. They are perfectly right in the matter of the gradual filling up of all unscoured pockets. Why, then, do they so carefully avoid showing this clogging in the mouth of the...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 7
*Figs 261 and 262 from Safety in House Drainage, by W. E. Hoyt, C. E., in Pop. Science Monthly for July, 1888. We see in Fig. 264 again some of the many ways in which the back vent pipe fails esp...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 8
* Lectures on the Science and Art of Sanitary Plumbing, London, 1882. Fig. 269. (7) Had he known the inevitable consequence of the law in introducing unintentional defects and by-passes, m...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 9
Of course, it will be objected at first thought that the pneumatic test does not reproduce in actual form the precise phenomena encountered in ordinary plumbing work, but a little reflection will show...
-Trap Testing Apparatus. Part 10
After filling the traps with water, one opens the stopcock between the trap to be tested and the pipe system, so as to allow air passing through the trap to break the partial vacuum therein. This air ...
-Chapter XVI. Self-Siphonage And Momentum
SELF - SIPHONAGE takes place when the waste water flows through the trap full bore from the fixtures. As usually constructed, wash basins have outlets far too small in proportion to the size of the ...
-Self-Siphonage And Momentum. Continued
The first tests were made as follows: I had pipes evenly coated with deposits found in house-drain pipes and under the conditions met with in ordinary practice, and made, first, a series of extreme...
-Chapter XVII. Water Flushing
IN order to obtain a direct comparison of the relative value of a thorough water and of the greatest possible air flushing, the same pipes, tested as already described under the air current, and conta...
-Water Flushing. Continued
Fig. 276. Effect of Back Pressure. Fig. 277. Back Pressure resisted by posi-sition of the Trap below the Fixture. Fig. 278. Effect of Back Pressure. With a pot trap, however, the ...
-Chapter XVIII. Evaporation
WI T H unventi-lated traps evaporation of their seal goes on with extreme slowness, and with such traps containing a considerable body of water, no danger from this cause need be anticipated unless th...
-Evaporation. Part 2
We see that the loss averages about an eighth of an inch per diem. It amounts to about a quarter of an inch the first day, and gradually diminishes as the level of the water descends in the trap, and ...
-Evaporation. Part 3
It would obviously be impossible to devise a form of apparatus for experimental purposes which should cover all the varying conditions liable to be met with in plumbing practice. The position of the t...
-Chapter XIX. Capillary Action
BESIDES the well known enemies of the water seal of traps already described, another exists which is, however, more insidious and no less fatal in its action. It works like the vampire, silently and s...
-Action Forming Short Siphon
What is the capillary effect of large and small quantities of the sediment found in traps, and how can the loss of water by this agency be prevented? It is evident, first, that the substances exert...
-Action Forming Short Siphon. Part 2
(c) Jute. A hempen, unwoven cord, with long, fine fibres, used by plumbers in caulking. This substance produced the strongest capillary action, and acts like very fine hair and lint. Arranged as in Fi...
-Action Forming Short Siphon. Part 3
A 6-inch pot trap similarly arranged lost 2 1/8 inches in one day, 2 5-16 inches, 2 3/8 inches and 2 7-16 inches, in two, three and five days, respectively, after which no apparent further change took...
-Chapter XX. By Passes
One of the evil effects of the complication of piping due to the trap vent law is that it renders the plumbing more difficult to arrange, repair, and understand. The proper placing of the vent-pipes o...
-Chapter XXI. Wash Basins
The wash basins of the ancients were generally double, or provided with pitchers, and this is shown in the sculptures and paintings of Egypt and in the figures on the bas reliefs and pottery of Grecia...
-Wash Basins. Continued
Fig. 299. Japanese Towel Racks.* them, and the various serious evils to which such accumulations give rise. Not only then should every wash basin be constructing about for the advantages of imm...
-Chapter XXII. Classification Of The Different Kinds Of Basins
I have divided basins into two general classes: (I) Those having concealed overflow passages, and (2) those having open overflow passages. Each of these is subdivided as follows: Basins having conc...
-Classification Of The Different Kinds Of Basins. Continued
Fig. 305. All Porcelain Plug and Chain Basin. Figures 302, 303, 304 and 305 represent in section and in perspective all-porcelain plug and chain basins. Figs. 302, 303, 304 and 305. Figure 3...
-Chapter XXIII. (C) Valve Outlet Basin
Our next type of wash-basin corresponds in principle with the valve water closet. The outlet is closed by a valve working in a small chamber or receiver, which, like the water closet receiver, is liab...
-Chapter XXIV. (D) Plunger Outlet Basin
Our plunger outlet basin corresponds with the plunger outlet water closet, and has its defects. A great defect is its several inaccessible fouling chambers. The type may be subdivided into two styles,...
-Chapter XXV. (B) Standpipe Overflow Basin And (C) Direct Outlet Basin
Before 1883 lavatories were made, as a rule, with concealed overflows, strangely enough, and open standpipe overflow basins had not been introduced. The first basin of this kind was beaten out in the ...
-The Securitas Basin
Figures 362 to 365 illustrate the writer's latest improvement in basins to which he has given the name Securitas, for the reason that it provides, in the simplest manner, absolute sanitary security ...
-Chapter XXVI. Kitchen Pantry Sinks And Baths
Of all plumbing fixtures none are more dependent upon a proper form of discharge than those into which grease and organic refuse coming from dish washing are brought. Nowhere is the application of the...
-Kitchen Pantry Sinks And Baths. Continued
Fig. 366d. First Automatic Flushing Sink. Fig. 366e. Plan of the Automatic Sink. Figs. 366d to 366f represent in perspective, section and plan the writer's first device for complete auto...
-Room. From Morse
Cast iron enameled tubs are now so well made that the porcelain lining adheres firmly to the iron and makes a very beautiful and durable finish. It is not so durable, however, as the all crockery tub ...
-Chapter XXVII. Public Baths
In England, during the Middle Ages, bathing the hands in public sight in the banquet hall was the fashion. When the tables at their great feasts were spread, attendants entered the hall with basins, e...
-Chapter XXVIII. Water Closets
Dr. John S. Billings refers* in the Popular Science Monthly of January, 1889, to two old English pamphlets which contain the first description and illustrations of a water closet which had appeared si...
-Latrines
Fig. 380. Latrines in the Chateau de Marcoussis, France.* the part of the builders. They were vaults in stone and well ventilated, with doors for cleaning out. In castles From Viollet le Due's ...
-Latrines. Part 2
The Pan Closet. By good rights this closet should have no place at all in our list, or anywhere else, because it possesses absolutely none of the good features to be sought for in closets; but for ...
-Latrines. Part 3
When the pan is tilted, the movement causes a spattering due to the resistance of the confined air in the receiver, which sometimes projects a small body of water high up into the air. The Form of ...
-Chapter XXIX. Valve And Plunger Closets
A few years ago, before the need of system-a t i c ventilation of the sewers and soil-pipe began to be felt, and back pressure from the foul sewers forced the sewer gas through the water seal of traps...
-Valve And Plunger Closets. Continued
(e) In the matter of complication of arrangement for the simultaneous opening of the closet and cistern valves through levers, cranks and wires, the valve and pan closets are evidently equally defecti...
-Chapter XXX. Ancient And Foreign Apparatus
Progress in all things comes from studying and profiting by the errors of the past. The reason why the water carriage system of sewage disposal is gradually supplanting the dry methods the world over ...
-Ancient And Foreign Apparatus. Continued
The Chinese dispose of their sewage, not by sewers, but by scavengers, street gutters and canals. At Shanghai, says Prof. Morse, as one enters the native town he encounters men bearing uncovered bu...
-Chapter XXXI. Hopper Closets And Improved Closets
We come now to the class of water closets which is independent of valves, gates, plungers or mechanical seals or obstructions of any kind, and which accomplish both the removal of the wastes and the e...
-Hopper Closets And Improved Closets. Continued
Fig. 408. Tilting Hopper. Fig. 409. Air Vacuum Closet. Air Vacuum Closet. Fig. 409 represents a water closet having a double trap, the space between the two being for a vacuum chamber. T...
-Chapter XXXII. Trap Jet Closet
Fig. 413 represents a kind of hopper closet invented in England about half a century ago by Thomas Smith. In this closet the flushing stream is applied to much better advantage for emptying the basin ...
-Trap Jet Closet. Part 2
All closets which depend upon a double trap violate rules 1, 4, 7, 11, and 13. Should anything get lodged in the lower trap, it is generally impossible to get it out without taking the entire apparatu...
-Trap Jet Closet. Part 3
By examining Fig. 422 it will be observed that the the under surface of the bowl is horizontal from front to rear, except at the outlet, and that this surface is immersed under an inch or so of water....
-Trap Jet Closet. Part 4
The Securitas Water-Closet. Figs. 427 to 431 show later improvements in this device developed by the writer in connection with his shallow seal Securitas trap and designated by the same name. ...
-Trap Jet Closet. Part 5
Fig. 432. Writer's Early Device for Perpetual Refilling of Trap Seal Reduced by Evaporation, Siphonage or Other Cause. Fig. 433 shows in section one of the numerous direct flush- Fig. 43...
-Trap Jet Closet. Part 6
7. Accessibility and visibility of all parts, including the trap. A study of the drawings will show that this desideratum has been attained. 8. Smoothness of material. The closet being constructed ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Soil And Drain Pipes
Having shown simple ways in which offensive or dangerous gases may be securely trapped off and debarred from entering the house through the various fixtures at their points of connection with the wate...
-Soil And Drain Pipes. Part 2
Cast iron is brittle, but when iron of the proper softness is used, and when the castings are of sufficient thickness, its brittleness need not be an objection. Wrought iron is smoother, denser, mo...
-Soil And Drain Pipes. Part 3
The safe use of white enameled pipe is out of the question with the caulked joint, because the jarring produced by the caulking tool tends to crack the enamel. The bell or hub and spigot joint, how...
-Chapter XXXIV. The Bell And Spigot Joint
Our Figs. 444 and 444a show a defective joint produced by carelessness, which is only another name for fraud. The jute has been driven beyond the end of the spigot, forming an obstruction to the water...
-The Bell And Spigot Joint. Part 2
Speaking of the great importance of applying the pressure test, the Metal Worker says: A pipe may be tight and apparently sound, yet of so thin a substance that the least pressure will destroy it o...
-The Bell And Spigot Joint. Part 3
(1) The. joint should be so constructed that the power required for its formation may be applied to the best advantage, and its application should be independent of special skill on the part of the wo...
-The Bell And Spigot Joint. Part 4
Figs. 446 and 447 give another form of bell and spigot joint devised with the same end in view, but in this case the pressure for caulking is applied at an opening in the side. A groove is formed arou...
-The Bell And Spigot Joint. Part 5
Fig. 453 shows a somewhat improved form of this joint. The most conspicuous difference between the two forms is that there is no groove in the bell, but instead the groove is made in the gasket itself...
-The Bell And Spigot Joint. Part 6
Fig. 457. Fig. 4 58. Fig. 459. Fig-. 460. Fig. 461. Machine Turned Bell and Spigot Joint with Lugs and Bolts. This joint (Fig. 462) is for cast iron pipe, and has...
-Chapter XXXV. (II.) The Flange Joint
Flange joints are those which are made with flanges forming bearings for bolts or clamps, by means of which the pipes are secured together. Our first example is: (a) The Spigot and Socket flange jo...
-(II.) The Flange Joint. Part 2
Fig. 472. Fig. 473. Fig. 474. (c) The Loose Ring Flange Joints. Around each end of the pipes to be jointed is formed a projecting annular flange or rib of rectangular sections....
-(II.) The Flange Joint. Part 3
In the groove in the leaden ring temporary sheet iron discs, formed in two parts and held together by hooks, are then placed. The two coupling rings are then pushed against the disc, which by resistin...
-(II.) The Flange Joint. Part 4
Figs. 495, 496 and 497. The use of divided rings and bolts enables the joint to be easily disconnected at any time. In Fig. 498 the ends of the pipes have formed on them annular ribs or proj...
-(II.) The Flange Joint. Part 5
Fig. 505. Fig. 506. (6) The Inner Ring Screw Joint. In Fig. 505 a simple form of screw joint is shown, having as its object better resistance against pressure. The novel feature is the u...
-Chapter XXXVI. Leakage Of Pipes And Joints
The following extracts from a letter to Mr. Dean of the Central Foundry Co. from Mr. James C. Bayles regarding the waste of water and gas through leakage in distribution will be of interest as showing...
-Leakage Of Pipes And Joints. Continued
In the case of gas the evils of main leakage are many and serious. The least of these is the economic waste which must be paid for by charging it to consumption. It enormously increases the fire ha...
-Chapter XXXVII. Improvements In Pipe Jointing
Of the various kinds of joints thus far reviewed we have found the ordinary bell-and-spigot joint the most defective. As has been shown, it is faulty (1) in the manner in which the packing material is...
-Improvements In Pipe Jointing. Part 2
Money Loss Through Bad Jointing. It is pretty generally agreed that an average of 50 gallons of water per day for each individual is a liberal allowance for all purposes. The enormous quantities...
-Improvements In Pipe Jointing. Part 3
Fig. 527. Fig. 526. Fig. 529. Fig. 530 Fig. 531. The amount of lead used for calking our flanged joint is about one-eighth that required for the ordinary joint. The lead...
-The "Securitas" Flexible Joint
Two kinds of motion at the joints must be provided for, one longitudinal and one rotary, and the experiments seem to show that, while the exterior form of the joints may be the same for both kinds of ...
-The "Securitas" Flexible Joint. Continued
The joint occupies the minimum of space and is of very pleasing appearance. The fibrous rings of the joint are held in place by annular shoulders or projections cast on the inner side of the spheri...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Open Setting For Plumbing Work. The General Arrangement Of Plumbing Work
All the piping of a house should be as far as possible . in full view. Nothing should be walled in or covered over and rendered inaccessible. One of the first rules of modern sanitary work is to bring...
-Chapter XXXIX. The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Report To The Boston City Board Of Health
To the Boston City Board of Health: - Gentlemen: - The experiments heretofore made in this country on the siphonage of traps have faithfully shown the siphoning power of those fixtures which are in...
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 2
A 1 lead waste-pipe was connected with the soil-pipe just above the basement floor. This branch waste had a number of ventilating openings made upon it, and a deep-seal S-trap at its end. The trap h...
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 3
(e) A 1 vent-pipe 7' long was then attached to the opening. The first discharge nearly broke the seal; the second not only broke it but left the water standing below the mouth of the inlet-pipe. ...
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 4
These experiments are divided into: - (1) Those in which the siphonic action was produced by a trapped closet. (2) Those in which a trapless plunger-closet was used. (3) Those in which a flush-t...
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 5
(3) Pot-traps having bodies 6 in diameter and having 1 or 1 connections may, however, be considered safe when they are not exposed to the repeated action of plunger water-closets of the largest w...
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 6
(4) The following is the water capacity of the traps tested. The 8 pot-trap holds 5 quarts or 10 pints. The 6 pot-trap holds 3 quarts or 6 pints. The 5 pot-trap holds 2 quarts or 5 pints....
-The Siphonage And Evaporation Of Traps. Part 7
We see here a very rapid diminution of the seal. The average loss per diem exceeded one-third of an inch, or exactly four-elevenths of an inch. The smallest loss is one-eighth of an inch, and the larg...
-Chapter XL. Review Of Dr. Teale's Interesting Work On "Dangers To Health."
In the original course of these lectures before the North End Union a number of very striking illustrations from Dr. Teale's Dangers to Health* were reproduced upon the screen for the purpose of pre...
-Review Of Dr. Teale's Interesting Work On "Dangers To Health". Part 2
Fig. 595. Plenty of deadly sewer gas, but occupants still live. Fig. 596 was contributed to Dr. Teale's list by a physician. In this house four cases of typhus and typhoid fever had occurred, one...
-Dangers To Health. Part 3
Fig. 603. A, Ventilating pipe of drain turned into bedroom chimney. B, Ventilator of drain discharging close to a chimney pot. * Enteric Fever at Melton Mowbray. Report, 18S1. Fig. 604...
-Dangers To Health. Part 4
Fig. 610. A villa at Cannes. Fig. 611. Manure heaps against house walls. A case of an outbreak of enteric fever was reported to be caused by the backing up of sewage infected by typhoid ...
-Dangers To Health. Part 5
Fig. 620. Disused Trap. Evaporation of water. Direct communication with the drain. Fig. 621. Lavatory in bedroom trapped, but discharging into soil pipe of W. C. The next four figures ...
-Chapter XLI. Sand Filtration
Sand filtration, both slow and rapid, is becoming yearly more popular for water purification and methods yof washing the sand to maintain the filter up to the highest efficiency are being constantly i...
-Sand Filtration. Continued
The water overflows the edges of the troughs which are laid as nearly horizontal as possible. The covers prevent the dirty water from clogging the troughs during washing, and also aid in regulating th...
-Chapter XLII. Plumbing Laws. A Plumbing Code Recommended By The Author
IN conformity with requests at different times of commissions appointed by three cities for the revision of their plumbing regulations, and acting as expert for these commissions, I have drawn up seve...
-Plumbing Laws. A Plumbing Code Recommended By The Author. Continued
*Plumbing: The Modern, the Old and the Advanced Systems. Lecture by Wm. Paul Gerhard. C.E., of New York, reprinted from Bulletin of Vermont State Board of Health. In northern latitudes where soi...
-Plumbing Regulations
Section 1. Plans and Specifications. The plumbing and drainage of all buildings, public and private, additions and alterations thereto, shall be executed under the direction of the Health Officer, in ...
-Plumbing Regulations. Part 2
*Size prescribed below. Fig. 1. Fig. 5 Section 10. The Pneumatic Apparatus shall be constructed as shown in Figure 2, and shall consist of a two-inch vertical pipe P ten feet long her...
-Plumbing Regulations. Part 3
Section 15. Back Pressure. For preventing back pressure all soil pipes shall be connected with the horizontal drains and all horizontal runs by long bends, and no running or other trap of any kind sha...
-Plumbing Regulations. Part 4
Section 30. Tight Joints. All joints shall be made air and water tight and shall stand the tests for tightness specified in this act. Section 32. Special Traps, etc. Every building from which in th...
-Chapter XLIII. Recapitulation
The following review of this course of lectures was published in the Boston Transcript of March 24, 1900: A Plea For Safer Plumbing Revision of the Present Laws is Demanded. Millions of Dolla...
-Recapitulation. Part 2
A very short time after the first experimenters had recommended trap-venting other experimenters found several objections to the practice not foreseen by the first in their very hasty recommendations...
-Recapitulation. Part 3
Thus the question of house plumbing is closely connected with that of the sewerage systems of cities and towns, and these again with one another throughout the entire state and country. The question ...
-Chapter XLIV. Better Plumbing At Half The Cost.
Mr. President and Members of the Institute: I have here drawings representing two methods of plumbing the same house, one sometimes called the two pipe system, being designed in conformity with the ...
-Better Plumbing At Half The Cost.. Part 2
One of these main soil pipes might be dispensed with as shown in the simple plan. Next there are the two rain-water stacks usual in city houses, either inside the house, to avoid freezing, or outsi...
-Better Plumbing At Half The Cost.. Part 3
It seems, therefore, fair to say that the luxury of having outside window and sun exposure for these two bath rooms adds $720.00 to the real cost of the two-pipe plumbing when comparing it with the si...
-Lectures on The Principles of Household Drainage
By The Same Author Delivered before the Suffolk District Medical Society, and the Boston Society of Architects, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With over 300 Illustrations. From...







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