II The Flange Joint 516

Fig. 472.

II The Flange Joint 517

Fig. 473.

II The Flange Joint 518

Fig. 474.

(c) The Loose Ring Flange Joints.

Around each end of the pipes to be jointed is formed a projecting annular flange or rib of rectangular sections. 474 and 475. A band of rubber is placed over the joint and upon this band a cast-iron collar or belt in two halves. The edges of the iron band turn inwards so as to form shoulders on each side of the rubber band to protect them. The joint is perishable and unreliable under pressure.

Figs. 476 and 477 represent another form of the same kind of joint. The pipes are formed with a bevelled flange. A rubber ring is used, as before, as packing, but the ring is placed between the ends of the pipes instead of around the joint. The metallic ring which holds the pipes together is double-wedge shaped in sections and slotted so as to allow it to be passed over the flanges. A bolt with a wedge-shaped head is used to hold the whole in place.

II The Flange Joint 519

Fig. 475.

II The Flange Joint 520

Fig. 476.

II The Flange Joint 521

Fig. 477.

(d) The Wedge and Key Flange Joint.

The flanges are here, Figs. 478, 479 and 480, connected by means of dove-tailed wedges or cotters and keys, instead of the ordinary bolts and nuts. Instead of the ordinary slotted openings, which are usually formed in the flange at each end of the pipe for the connecting bolts, the openings have a dove-tailed form as shown in plan Fig. 480. When the faces of the flanges, with their intermediate packing, are placed in position to be connected, dove-tailed cotters or wedges are passed through the dove-tail opening in the flanges, in the direction of the length of the pipes, and drawn up tight by keys driven through slotted holes in their ends. This construction is too bulky, inflexible and complicated for plumbing-

(e) The Plain Non-Adjustable Flange Joint.

(Fig. 481.) The flanges of the joint used for illustration have on their meeting surfaces annular grooves, circular or otherwise, to receive a packing ring, similar in form and composed of vulcanized India-rubber, hemp, or other suitable elastic material. The grooves of the flanges must be of corresponding size, so that one-half portion of a packing ring may lie and be compressed in each when the flanges are drawn together. The object of the grooves is to prevent lateral derangement of the packing ring under the influence of steam or water pressure in the pipes. The flanges of this joint are sometimes square with rounded corners, instead of round, and in the corners are the holes for the connecting bolts. This joint is also inflexible and unsuitable for plumbing work. The packing intended to be used with it would soon lose its elasticity, and would occasion a leak when the pipes expanded and contracted longitudinally. Moreover, the annular space inside of the packing ring is an objectionable feature as forming shoulders on which matters passing through the pipes might adhere and cause stoppages.

II The Flange Joint 522

Fig. 478.

II The Flange Joint 523

Fig. 479.

II The Flange Joint 524

Fig. 480.

(III.). The Sleeve Joint.

The object of the sleeve joint is to form a connection between pipes having plain ends without flanges, hubs, threading or projections of any kind. The first division under this class:

II The Flange Joint 525

Fig. 481.

Figs. 483 and 484.

Figs. 483 and 484.

II The Flange Joint 527

Fig. 485.

(a) The lead packing sleeve joint illustrated in Figs. 483 and 484. This joint was devised for use with wrought iron pipes, in which it was desired to form connections like those on ordinary cast iron bell and spigot pipes and avoid weakening the pipe by thread cutting. It produces an even, smooth interior of the same diameter with the pipe, and could be made to form in part a rust joint. The lugs or rivets on the ends of the pipe engage in the recesses in the couplings and form a resistance to longitudinal strain. The joint is intended to have packing introduced, but the space is too contracted on the outside to permit of caulking.

It is a form of bayonet joint. It has no flexibility to facilitate setting and would be unsuitable for plumbing work.

Fig. 485 shows a lead packed joint designed to be made with lead in its cold state, aided by cement. The joint is somewhat complicated and difficult to make. It is composed of a leaden ring of peculiar construction, two cast iron coupling rings, cement for solidifying the joint, and a hoop for covering the coupling rings. The leaden ring is a band of milled or rolled sheet lead with a groove in the center. To join the rings, the band is cut to the length corresponding with the outer circumference of the pipes to be connected. It is then bent into the form of a ring, and the two ends are soldered or burned together by means of a blowpipe. The ring is placed over the ends of the pipes and pressed tightly against it by light blows of a hammer, or by means of a metallic band with pincers, or by a cramp in such a manner that the lead shall be thoroughly embedded in the pipe.