In England, during the Middle Ages, bathing the hands in public sight in the banquet hall was the fashion. When the tables at their great feasts were spread, attendants entered the hall with basins, ewers and napkins and carried them round to the company, who washed their hands before they sat down to dinner. Sometimes the guests were summoned to wash, however, in the lavatory before meals by the blast of trumpets. The ewers and basins were often made of gold and silver beautifully embossed with jewels and enameled with coats of arms, sometimes costing several hundred dollars each. But during the feast the company would throw bones and other refuse from their plates upon the floor, which the dogs looked for as their accustomed share. So that cleanliness at these interesting mediaeval feasts presented a picturesque diversity of form, particularly as

Fig. 371. Mediaeval Bathing at a Public Banquet.

Fig. 371. Mediaeval Bathing at a Public Banquet.

Public Baths 407Fig. 373. Japanese Public Bath. From Le Japon Illustre by Aime Humbert Hachette et Cie. Paris. 1870

Fig. 373. Japanese Public Bath. From Le Japon Illustre by Aime Humbert Hachette et Cie. Paris. 1870

Fig . 375. Plan of German Public Bath.

Fig-. 375. Plan of German Public Bath.

Pier. 374. German Public Bath. Perspective View

Pier. 374. German Public Bath. Perspective View

Plumbing and Household Sanitation.

Public Baths 411Public Baths 412Public Baths 413

375c. "When the World was Young."' From Painting by E. J. Poynter. P. R. A.. Royal Academy, 1892. From fingers were used before the 14th century in place of spoons and forks.

"'The Magazine of Art," Vol. XX. Cassel Publishing Co., N. Y.

Fig. 372 is Viollet le Due's restoration of the famous baths of Caracalla. These contained magnificent swimming halls of cold, hot and tepid water. The picture shows the "frigidarium" or great cold water bath, which is the largest in the establishment. It is open to the sky under the principle that protection from rain is unnecessary for bathers in cold water in a climate like that of Rome.

The warm bath, "tepidarium," seen in the view beyond the great arches, is roofed over, as is also the hot bath, "caldarium."

Fig. 373 represents a Japanese public bath.

Figs. 374 and 375 show a beautiful little German public bath from the Berlin "Skizzen Buch." The facades are treated with rich colors in Pompeian design. The plan shows the entrance terrace in front, reception rooms, one for ladies and the other for gentlemen, at the right and left of the entrance; a small buffet and dining room adjoining the entrance, with connecting kitchen, a large square central swimming bath, and dressing rooms, and separate small bathing rooms for men and women, and a common piazza in the rear for use after the bath.

Figs. 375 a and 375 B are from Jean Leon Gerome's famous paintings at the Paris Salon. Prom plates presented by the Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. Fig. 375c is from E. J. Poynter's "When the World was Young."