Dr. John S. Billings refers* in the Popular Science Monthly of January, 1889, to two old English pamphlets which contain the first description and illustrations of a water closet which had appeared since the days of old Rome. They were written in 1596 and described by their author as "A New Discourse of a Stale Subject," and as an "Anatomy" wherein is described "plainly, openly and demonstratively declared, explained and eliquidated how unsavory places may be made sweet, noisome places made wholesome, filthy places made cleanly. Published for the common benefit of builders, housekeepers and house owners, by T. C, traveller, apprentise in poetry, prac-tiser in music," etc. The author, John Harrington, describes his water closet, his picture of which we have reproduced in Fig. 376, in the following quaint but rather unnecessarily strong language: "When I have found, not only in mine own poor confused cottage, but even in the goodliest and stateliest palaces of this realm, notwithstanding all our provisions of vaults, of sluices, of gates, of pains of poor folks in sweeping and scouring, yet still this same whoreson, saucy stink, I began to conceive such a malice against all the race of them that I vowed to be at deadly feud with them till I had brought some of the chiefest of them to utter confusion, and conferring some principles of philosophy I had read, and some conveyances of architecture I had seen, with some devices of others I had heard, and some practices of mine own I had paid for, I found out this way that is after described and a marvelous easy and cheap way it is.

Fig. 376. Earliest Form of Water Closet Apparatus Since the days of Rome. (From the Popular Science Monthly.)

Fig. 376. Earliest Form of Water Closet Apparatus Since the days of Rome. (From the Popular Science Monthly.)

*"House Drainage from Various Points of View." Popular Science Monthly for January, 1889.

"Here is the same, all put together that the workman may see if it be well. A, the cistern; b, the little washer therein; c, the supply pipe; d, the seat board; e, the pipe that comes from the cistern; f, the screw (to start the flush); g, the scallop shell to cover it when it is shut down; H, the stool pot (or receiver); i, the stopple (or plug); k, the current (or flushing stream); 1, the sluice (or waste pipe); m, N, the vault into which it falls; always remember that the servant at noon and at night empty it, and leave it half a foot deep in fair water."

Fig. 377 shows quite a different style of closet equally interesting and curious, but more decorative, though of considerably earlier date and not so sanitary. It is fairly illustrative of the somewhat pompous and pretentious Roman architecture with its curved throne-like back and royal carved lions' legs. It is now preserved in the Louvre in Paris.

Fig. 378 shows the construction of latrines in the palace of Courcy, France, in the 13th century. They were arranged in such a manner as to avoid odor and all other inconvenience. They were built in the interior angle between a tower and the main building in such a location that the waste matters were received in a rocky crevice in the forest surrounding the castle. The closet room adjoined a passageway communicating with the chambers and the staircase. In the plan B is the main building, C the tower. From the wall of the former to that of the latter the wall B-D was built on corbels to mask the water closet seat E. At F is a urinal with its pipe shown in the elevation H at the spout below the small window G. I is a section looking toward the window and showing the seat and window in elevation. Thus the closet room was quite open to the air both above and below, and secured perfect ventilation.

Water Closets 415

Fig. 377.

Fig. 378. Latrines in the Palace of Courci, France. 13th Century.*

Fig. 378. Latrines in the Palace of Courci, France. 13th Century.* discharges directly into the open air. The seat is carried on a bracket projecting clear of the wall and is covered by the stone nichework shown in plan and perspective.

The next Fig. 379 shows a closet in the castle of Lands-perg which still exists intact, and which like that at Courcy

*From Viollet le Due's Dictionary of Architecture.

Fig. 379. Latrines in the Castle of Landsperg .*

Fig. 379. Latrines in the Castle of Landsperg-.*

The chateaux of the middle ages were also provided with large cesspools which were the subject of great care on

From Viollet le Due's Dictionary of Architecture