By examining Fig. 422 it will be observed that the the under surface of the bowl is horizontal from front to rear, except at the outlet, and that this surface is immersed under an inch or so of water. It will also be observed that the water-slots in the flushing rim are largest in the front and rear, and gradually diminish as they extend round to the sides. The result of this conformation is that the upper flushing water jumps on top of the waste matters and acts to the best possible advantage in driving them quickly out, and the closet can be easily flushed in three seconds by less than a gallon and a half of water.

A stream of water may be rendered noiseless, however rapid and powerful its movement, by properly directing it into a body of water considerably larger than itself, provided the point of entrance be below the surface. It is not sufficient to do this in the manner usual in the old form of English and French siphon-jet closets, because the jet in these at once throws the standing water out of its way, and then makes an uproar even more appalling than the ordinary flushing stream. In these "siphon-jet" closets, the water used for cleansing the upper part of the bowl, when used in combination with the jet in the trap, is not only insufficient to keep the lower jet covered, but makes a most disagreeable clamor of itself, after the usual manner with modern closets.

Fig. 421. A third one of the Experimental Closets.

Fig. 421. A third one of the Experimental Closets.

The upper flushing stream should furnish a body of water nicely calculated to keep the lower stream just covered, and should itself be noiseless. The former result is easily attained by simply adjusting the size of the upper and lower flushing openings with reference to each other; the latter by constructing a special chamber into which the upper flushing stream may be projected before it enters the bowl. The upper part of this chamber forms an annular ring and surrounds the flushing rim. Being above the level of the standing water in the bowl, it receives only clean water. Being constructed in such a manner as to drain itself back into the closet bowl after each flushing action, it stands, like the flushing rim proper, empty at all times excepting during the moment of flushing. The upper jet discharges into the standing water in the lower part of this chamber, and its sound is instantly and entirely deadened. The water rises in the annular chamber and overflows through the flushing rim to descend quietly into the bowl, lubricate its sides, and assist the lower stream in ejecting the wastes and flushing the closet and drain-pipes.

Trap Jet Closet 461Fig. 422. Section of the Sanitas W. C. Outfit.

Fig. 422. Section of the Sanitas W. C. Outfit.

It will be observed, by referring to the perspective drawing, that the closet is provided with a cistern overflow connection at the flushing rim. The same pipe may serve also as a ventilating pipe. By connecting this with a proper ventilating flue above the cistern, in the manner shown in the drawing, Fig. 420, the seat and bowl of the closet may be ventilated. Such ventilation is serviceable at the moment of usage of the closet, but it is not needed for the bowl and trap themselves, which are kept odorless by their construction and arrangements for flushing. It is well, however, always to ventilate toilet-rooms, and as good a place as any to locate the ventilating outfit is under the seat of the water-closet in the manner described.

Fig. 423. Perspective View.

Fig. 423. Perspective View.

Figs. 419, 420 and 421 explain the principle of this closet. Several jets were tried at first in the form of a rose as shown, but a single jet or two jets were finally found most effective for the ejector as shown in 422. Fig. 423 shows the appliance in perspective.

Trap Jet Closet 464

Fig. 425.

Trap Jet Closet 465

Fig. 426.

Longitudinal and Transverse Sections of the First Raised Jet Closet.

Figs. 425 and 426 represent sections taken from the writer's original designs of his further improvement which was the first closet made with the jet above the bottom of the trap, partly for the purpose of sound deadening and partly to improve the appearance and the power of the flush.

Mr. Wm. Paul Gerhard in his German work on plumbing published in 1897, in Stuttgart, Germany, describes at some length a number of features of the "Sanitas" closet, which seemed to him advantageous as compared with the makes or styles prevailing at the time, and shows that closets built on the siphon jet principle of flushing nearly all appeared after the introduction of this appliance, and "suddenly enjoyed a great popularity." The "Sanitas" fixture he says "has nowhere a superfluous or undesirable angle, corner or surface to get foul," has a large and properly formed water surface, "and the arrangements for water flushing are novel," etc., and he goes on to describe the other features which were at that time new, somewhat as we have already pointed them out. The majority of appliances at that time had a number of objections and says Gerhard,* also, "labored under the disadvantage of making a great noise in flushing." These objections caused the public to appreciate the advantages of the new principle, and as a matter of fact the success of this closet immediately led to a great number of imitations until finally the siphon jet closet became practically the only one in general use.