Fig. 621. "Lavatory in bedroom trapped, but discharging into soil pipe of W. C."
The next four figures give some examples of bad joints and their effects. In Fig. 622 we find the junction between the metal soil pipe and the tile drain has been broken through the settlement of the ground around the joint, which has broken the cement and allowed the sewage to escape into a well under the house. This house was formerly used by Dr. Teale, from whom we take the illustration, and who reported sickness in the house due to this leakage.
Fig. 622. ' Broken junction of drain and soil pipe, and fouling of well under a house.
Fig. 625. Tree roots entering pipes laid with inferior mortar.
The office keeper in this house (Fig. 622) reported to Dr. Teale that before this fault was discovered "she hardly ever passed a week without a sick headache; that her children were constantly ailing, and that she could keep neither meat nor milk." Since correction Dr. Teale says they have been in "good health, and the meat and the milk have kept well."
Fig. 626. "Jerry builder" buying "seconds."
Fig. 627. Drain made of "seconds" - manslaughter under an "alias."
Fig. 625 illustrates the manner in which tile drains may be perforated by the roots of trees when they are put together with inferior mortar, and the next two pictures (Fig. 626) are snapshots secured to show the manner in which a good builder may save quite a sum of money in using tile pipes for hygienic construction where wrought iron pipe cannot be bought advantageously. This builder's only reason for buying "seconds" for this job was that he had already bought out all the "thirds" for another piece of sanitary engineering, and therefore could not obtain any more of them. The picture below (Fig. 627) shows the skillful and conscientious manner in which our worthy friend laid these pipes under a kitchen and pantry, where he calculated they would do the most good.
Fig. 629. Untrapped sink waste.
Fig 630. Rats and the tale they tell.
Fig. 629 records a case of sewer gas poisoning supposed by Dr. Teale to be due to an untrapped sink waste. Two children were taken seriously ill with inflamed sore throat attributed by the doctor to this defect.
Fig. 630 shows defective jointing under the sink which had been boxed in so that the defects escaped attention. Rats are apt to mean sewer gas holes where soil pipes are made of lead, as was the common custom in England when Dr. Teale wrote his book. They gnaw through the lead to get at the water or fat in the sink waste. They also make runs under the drains and thereby let the pipes down, as shown in the picture.
Fig. 631. Cistern feeding L boiler with overflow into drain.
Fig. 632. "On the wrong scent." No plans of the drains.
Fig. 633. Dish stone in scullery untrapped, and opening direct into a rain water tank, with overflow into drain.
Fig. 634. Dangers coming from concealing the plumbing pipes.
Fig. 632 shows the effect of bad jointing in a cellar of a house having no drain plans. The owner was obliged to have the whole cellar flooring raised before the drain was found. Dr. Teale entitles this picture "On the wrong scent," and shows the drain hunters excavating in the corner of the cellar the furthest off from where the drain actually was.
Figs. 631 and 633 give very common defects, the first showing a cistern feeding a kitchen boiler and having its overflow connected directly with the drain, and the second showing a rainwater tank under a house having an un-trapped dish stone or grating and an overflow into the drain. Sewer gas is meandering at pleasure all about the kitchen and scullery.
Fig. 636. Vicarage rendered unhealthy by infiltration from church yard.
Fig. 638. Cisterns ventilating cesspool.
The remaining figures, 634 to 638, are sufficiently explained by their titles and need no further comment in view of what has already been said.
Fig. 637. Cellar kept damp twelve years by slopwater.