Fig. 610. A villa at Cannes.

Fig. 610. A villa at Cannes.

Fig. 611. Manure heaps against house walls.

Fig. 611. Manure heaps against house walls.

A case of an outbreak of enteric fever was reported to be caused by the backing up of sewage infected by typhoid

Fig. 612. A hint on vaccination.

Fig. 612. A hint on vaccination.

Fig. 613. An  eligible mansion in Scotland let for the season

Fig. 613. An "eligible mansion" in Scotland let for the seasongerms, as was supposed, the sewage drying in the pipes, and then the sewer air entering the houses through untrapped drain inlets and plumbing fixtures. The two pictures, Figs. 612 and 613, show the conditions described.

In the second of these pictures all the upper water-closets siphoned themselves and the ones below them when they were discharged, and a stoppage in the drains gave rise to putrefactive decomposition.

In the other picture is recorded a supposed case of serious illness of a healthy child due to sewer gas infection after vaccination. Abscesses formed on the finger and ankle. The waste pipes of a basin and a bath near the nursery were untrapped. The sewer appears to have been inadequately ventilated.

Fig. 614. Leaden soil pipe secured and crumbling from old age.

Fig. 614. Leaden soil pipe secured and crumbling from old age.

Dr. Fergus and others show (Fig. 614) that the corrosion of lead pipes in plumbing, causing not pin holes only, but crowbar holes, is a chemical effect of concentrated sewer gas, the corrosion going on with greatly increased rapidity where pipes are foul and unventilated. What will destroy metal pipes is also injurious to the delicate tissue of the lungs, and it is certain that our safety is in proportion to the amount of dilution of the dangerous gases by fresh air. Dr. Fergus considered the duration of ventilated soil pipes when made of soft lead from 18 to 20 or more years, but when unventilated of but very few years. In the case shown in the picture Dr. Teale described the lead as "so rotten that it crumbled like shortcake."

Figs. 615 and 616. Guests have too little, butler too much liquid.

Figs. 615 and 616. Guests have too little, butler too much liquid.

In Figs. 615 and 616 we have a curious case of accident, due to the house owner being unaware of the presence of a cesspool under his cellar. The dining room is shown in the upper half of the picture with the landlord anxiously ringing for more wine for his thirsty guests. The wringing of an unexpected brand of whine from the poor butler resulted from his piercing the wrong cask below and bringing up a sample of stronger flavor and apparently greater antiquity than the host desired.

Fig. 604. A, Soil pipe communicating with sewer and opening just below bedroom window. B, Ventilator of soil pipe discharging.

Fig. 604. A, Soil pipe communicating with sewer and opening just below bedroom window. B, Ventilator of soil pipe discharging.

The next picture, Fig. 617, shows lead-caulked joints of a soil pipe and rainwater conductor opened by hot water from a bath tub in the second story. The occupant of this house suffered from erysipelas of the face, attributed to the breathing of sewer gas.

The next pictures show two other cases of defective plumbing. In Fig. 618 the waste pipe was originally connected with a bath tub, which was taken up, but the waste pipe was left open. In the room marked B an old sink waste pipe was treated in the same manner. Result, "constant bad odor, sore throat," says Dr. Teale.

Fig. 620 gives an illustration of the loss of water seal by evaporation in unoccupied houses, or in unused spare rooms.

Fig. 618.  A Bath waste pipe cut off and left open to the drain,

Fig. 618. "A" Bath waste pipe cut off and left open to the drain, "B," Sink waste pipe ditto.

Fig. 619. Putty Joints in Leaden Soil Pipes. Fig. 619 shows one of the disadvantages of the use of lead in plumbing.

Fig. 619. Putty Joints in Leaden Soil Pipes. Fig. 619 shows one of the disadvantages of the use of lead in plumbing.

Fig. 621 shows an arrangement of fixtures taken from a house described by Dr. Teale in which each discharge of the water-closet siphoned the wash basin trap with the greatest ease. The gentleman occupying the bedroom from which this illustration was taken was suffering from erysipelas of the face, and was about to undergo a surgical operation. His surgeon refused to perform any operation until the lavatory pipe was cut off from the drain and made to discharge into the open air. In the climate of England this treatment is a safe one so far as freezing is concerned, but is not permissible here. Thus the poor patient was obliged to shoulder two heavy bills, his physician's as well as his plumber's. The use of an anti-siphon trap would have avoided the latter. As here arranged, we have excellent conditions for producing self-siphonage of the wash basin trap. When a basin having an outlet as large as the one shown is discharged by lifting the plug, it will fill its waste pipe "full bore" and the contents of the basin, up to its overflow opening, will fill the pipe full as far as to its con-nection with the soil pipe. This long arm of the siphon will at once pull over the water in the short arm as soon as the basin is empty, and the suction in the trap will continue until the water column has traversed the entire length of the branch waste, thus giving the siphoning action ample time to suck out any water that may trickle down into the trap from the basin after the discharge. This action will be the more positive the longer the branch waste and the greater its pitch, reaching its maximum with the perpendicular position of the waste pipe.