Fig. 603. A, Ventilating pipe of drain turned into bedroom chimney. B, Ventilator of drain discharging close to a chimney pot.

Fig. 603. A, Ventilating pipe of drain turned into bedroom chimney. B, Ventilator of drain discharging close to a chimney pot.

* "Enteric Fever at Melton Mowbray." Report, 18S1.

Fig. 604. A, soil pipe communicating with sewer and opening just below bedroom window. B, Ventilator of soil pipe discharging

Fig. 604. A, soil pipe communicating with sewer and opening just below bedroom window. B, Ventilator of soil pipe discharging close to the attic window.

Fig. 605 shows a very similar contamination of such meats in an infirmary at Leeds, where sink drains were found practically untrapped in every instance and were believed to have caused certain outbreaks of diarrhoea which occurred at the hospital.

Finkeluburg* reports a case which shows the rapidity of action of sewer gas when generated in sufficient volume.

Fig. 605. Bad keeping cellar.  No wonder the meat won't keep, the beer turns sour, and the milk disagrees.

Fig. 605. Bad keeping cellar. "No wonder the meat won't keep, the beer turns sour, and the milk disagrees."

The basement of a house of detention four feet below grade was flooded by the backing up of sewage from a sewer. Thirteen brushmakers in a room not far distant were taken so seriously ill as to have to be removed to the hospital. The next illustration, Fig. 606, illustrates this case. The cellar has been flooded by the backing up of sewage from a clogged-up drain, the stoppage arising from the use of a 6-inch pipe between two 4i-nch pipes.

* "Vierteljahrschrift fur gerichtliche Medizin. N. F. X. X., page 301.

Most of the brushmakers fell ill on the day after the sewage had been pumped out, during which operation a pestilential odor pervaded the premises. While the liquid sewage covered the floor, bacteria could not arise from it. But after the pumping out, the drying of the floor would set free the micro-organisms, so that a strong air suction could distribute them through the building above.

Fig. 606. Six inch pipe between two four inch pipes.

Fig. 606. Six-inch pipe between two four-inch pipes.

Fig. 607. Economy in digging at the expense of fall.

Fig. 607. Economy in digging at the expense of fall.

Backing up also occurred in the case shown in Fig. 607, where, you see, too little fall has been allowed for the drain.

Fig. 608.  To be continued in our next. The authorities saw the

Fig. 608. "To be continued in our next." The authorities saw the junction.

Fig. 609. A, Drain  taking a rock; sewage  refusing. B, W C, Discharging into Basement of a House.

Fig. 609. A, Drain "taking" a rock; sewage "refusing." B, W C, Discharging into Basement of a House.

The next pictures show two other cases of backing up recorded by Dr. Teale, Figs. 608 and 609. In the first the contractor had discontinued the house drain on its way to the sewer on account of a rock which came between the two. The result was that all the waste from the water-closet had been soaking away into the ground from the time when the house was built, seven years before the discovery of this defect, and the children had all the time been ailing. Here also bacteria could escape from drying earth, as well as the dangerous gases of putrefaction, and contaminate the milk and meat in the kitchen over the. drain.

In the other picture, Fig. 609, backing up occurred from a sharp upward bend in the drain to enable it to climb over a spur in a rock and save the contractor from the work of blasting. Another defect is shown-in this picture at the point of connection of the water-closet outlet pipe with the house drain. These defects in drain "grading" were described by Mr. Teale as very common, being reported to him on many occasions by eye-witnesses. They are strong arguments for requiring all drains outside of the house to be laid by a properly organized public health department, rather than by contract, thereby eliminating the element of profit. Where public health is concerned the importance of this principle is more easily understood.

Of course, with the modern system of laying all drain pipes of well jointed iron, a pipe might be laid considerably more out of alignment than could be the case with tile drains.

Dr. Teale gives still another illustration of food poisoning by sewer gas, which I reproduce in the next picture, Fig. 610. This took place at a villa in Cannes, France, where a lady was sent for her health. Her maid fell ill of typhoid fever, and upon investigation it was found that a water-closet on the second floor discharged into a large tank or cesspool in the basement, and that the cesspool overflowed upon the floor of the room which was next to the larder and kitchen. Thus the products of putrefaction appeared to have contaminated the food supply and entered the bedrooms, occasioning, it was believed, either directly or indirectly, the typhoid case.

Fig. 611 represents the scene of a case of diphtheria occasioned, it was believed, by the putrefaction of a heap of manure from the barn yard, which was piled up against the wall of the dwelling house and penetrated the walls and floors.