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House Drainage And Sanitary Plumbing | by William Paul Gerhard



The essay reproduced herein was originally prepared for the annual report of the State Board of Health of Rhode Island. It was written both for professionals and laymen. Having met with a favorable reception it was thought worth while to increase its utility by republishing it in an improved and more accessible shape. Many parts were accordingly rewritten, others were modified and omissions corrected. Such omissions, however, are sure to occur in any edition of a book, containing descriptions of modern plumbing apparatus, as new appliances are continuously invented between the time the book is written until it is printed and published.

TitleHouse Drainage And Sanitary Plumbing
AuthorWilliam Paul Gerhard
PublisherD. Van Nostrand
Year1882
Copyright1882, D. Van Nostrand
AmazonHouse Drainage and Sanitary Plumbing

by Wm. Paul Gerhard, Civil and Sanitary Engineer; Member American Public Health Association.

Reprinted From Van Nostrand's Magazine.

House Drainage And Sanitary Plumbing 1
-Preface
The essay reproduced herein was originally prepared for the annual report of the State Board of Health of Rhode Island. It was written both for professionals and laymen. Having met with a favorable re...
-House Drainage And Sanitary Plumbing
Many erroneous ideas still prevail about sewer gas and its danger to health which arises, by having so-called modern conveniences in our dwellings. It is the purpose of this paper, without in anyway...
-Sewer Gas
I shall, first, briefly consider what is meant by the term sewer gas. This term, as Prof. W. Ripley Nichols has truly said,* is an unfortunate one, and gives rise to a quite widespread but very err...
-Defective And Good Plumbing Work
The unhealthiness of dwelling houses has been greatly iucreased by plumbing work defective in design, materials and in workmanship, through ignorance, but often through intention of builders. The cons...
-Drains Outside Of The House
The house drain is the means for conveying the sewage from the dwelling. Its proper material is a question of great importance. Outside of the dwelling it should be of vitrified pipe, circular in shap...
-Drains Outside Of The House. Continued
In the Stanford joint tightness is obtained by easting upon the spigot and in the socket of each pipe, by means of moulds prepared for the purpose, rings of a cheap and durable material, which, when ...
-Table Of Diameters Of House Drains
With various Grades, and for Lots of different sizes, capable of discharging 2 inches of rain per hour when running three-fourths full. Robert Moore, C. E., St. Louis. Mo. The quantity of rain to ...
-Drains Inside Of The House
The earthenware drain should end at about 5 to 10 ft. outside of the foundation walls of the house. From this point towards the inside of the house the drain should be of iron. The joint between iron ...
-Soil And Waste Pipes
Into the iron drain the vertical soil and waste pipes enter by means of either quarter bends or by a Y branch with an eighth bend.* * As regards the exact meaning of the terms drain pipe, soil pipe, ...
-Soil And Waste Pipes. Part 2
4. Urine does not corrode an iron soil pipe, protected by a coal-tar pitch so- lution or by enamel, more than a lead pipe. 5. The outside of iron pipe can be efficiently protected from rusting by pai...
-Soil And Waste Pipes. Part 3
When all the iron piping in the house is completed, the tightness of the joints should be thoroughly tested, before connecting the fixtures. The test which is mostly used, is the water pressure test....
-Essential Elements Of A System Of Plumbing
We have thus far considered only the material, size, general arrangement and manner of jointing the drain, soil and waste pipes in a house. We must now consider what the essentials of the system are, ...
-Extension Of Soil And Waste Pipes
The first requirement asks for a vertical extension of all soil and waste pipes through the roof. This extension affords a ready outlet for all gases that would otherwise tend to accumulate inside the...
-Fresh Air Inlet
The second requirement calls for a fresh air inlet or fresh air pipe. This is no less important than the extension of the soil pipes through the roof. In order to effect a constant movement and change...
-Trap On Main Drain
Our third requirement calls for a trap on the main drain between the sewer, cesspool or flush tank, and the fresh air pipe. A trap is practically a suitable bend or dip in the drain, which retains a s...
-Trapping Of Fixtures
The fourth essential, as stated above, calls for a suitable trap, placed as near as possible under every fixture. As regards this point I cannot agree with the views of Prof. Osborne Reynolds of Owen...
-Venting Of Traps
The fifth requirement asks for a proper vent pipe for such traps under fixtures as are liable to be siphoned. This siphon-age constitutes in many cases a danger, but especially so with Straps. Traps m...
-Evaporation Of Water In Traps
Nothing short of continuous use of the fixtures will prevent evaporation of the water in traps. A large dip is recommended for traps on waste pipes to guard against a rapid loss of the seal. When a ho...
-Absorption Of Gases By The Water In Traps
It is well known that water has the property of absorbing gases, and it was believed that the water in traps would readily absorb sewer air from the soil pipe and give it off at the house side of the ...
-Branch Wastes From Fixtures
Fixtures are connected to the soil and waste pipe system by branch wastes carried under the floors. The material used almost exclusively for such branch wastes is lead, and the sizes adapted to differ...
-Rain Leaders
Rain-water pipes may be of galvanized wrought-iron, or of tin; when laid inside of a house they should be of cast iron and their joints treated in all respects as those of soil pipes. Before joining t...
-Cistern Overflow Pipes
Both under-ground cisterns and cisterns in the attic of a house should be provided with an overflow. The usual custom has been to connect this overflow pipe to the drain, or, if inside a house, to the...
-Safe-Wastes
In order to prevent the flooding of floors and ceilings, fixtures, such as wash bowls, bath tubs, water closets, etc., are mostly lined with a safe of sheet lead, provided with a waste pipe. In bad pl...
-Drainage Of Cellars
It remains to discuss the proper method of removal of excessive moisture from the soil under and around a dwelling. Unless this is properly attended to, cellars of houses will be continually damp, the...
-Dampness Of Walls
In order to prevent dampness of walls, that part of the wall below the level of the ground should be constructed with particular care. Nothing will better prevent dampness in walls than a damp cours...
-System Of House Drainage
Fig. 3 represents a section through a dwelling house, illustrating the essential elements of a system of house drainage. A is the gravel trap, into which the subsoil drain B discharges, and which ser...
-Record And Plan Of Drainage And Plumbing Inspection
It cannot be too strongly recommended to every householder to keep for future reference, for cases of inspection or repairs and alterations, a complete plan of all the drain, soil and waste pipes in a...
-Plumbing Regulations
The cities of New York, Brooklyn and Washington lately have set an example worthy of imitation in other cities. The health authorities have issued excellent regulations for plumbing of buildings, and ...
-Plumbing Fixtures
The various plumbing fixtures which receive and deliver to the drain the foul wastes of the household, will be reviewed here only from a sanitary point of view. For more detailed technical description...
-Wash Basins
Beginning with wash basins, little of sanitary importance may be said with regard to them. If properly fitted with waste pipes of proper size and material aud efficiently protected by a good trap, the...
-Bath Tubs
Bath tubs are made of wood, or wood lined with galvanized sheet iron, or with zinc or heavy copper, tinned and planished, or nickel plated, of cast iron with porcelain enamel, and of stone ware. Any o...
-Laundry Tubs
Laundry tubs are made of various materials, such as wood, wood lined with sheet lead, enameled or galvanized cast iron, cement stone, soap stone or earthenware. Wooden tubs are objectionable as this m...
-Kitchen And Pantry Sinks, Laundry And Housemaid's Sinks
Sinks are made of wood, of wood lined with lead, or with copper, of cast iron, which may be galvanized or enameled, of copper, soap stone, slate or earthenware. For pantry sinks tinned and planished ...
-Grease Traps
Through kitchen and pantry sinks a large amount of grease, derived from washing dishes, etc,, is emptied into the drainage system. This grease proves to be of all the waste matters in the house the mo...
-Slop Sinks And Slop Hoppers
We have hitherto considered only those fixtures which receive foul water unmixed with discharges from the human system. Slop sinks and slop hoppers, as well as water closets and urinals, intended to c...
-Urinals
No fixture is so liable to become unclean and foul smelling as a urinal, owing to the rapid decomposition of the urine. A small amount of urine spattered over is apt to become quite offensive. Urinals...
-Water Closets In General
The most important and useful plumbing fixture in a house is the water closet. Water closets should be in all houses that make any pretentions towards convenience. That they are a vast improvement ov...
-Water Closets In General. Continued
The mode of flushing a water closet from the main supply pipe of the house is decidedly objectionable, especially with closets located in upper stories of city houses. If water is drawn from a faucet ...
-Pan Closets
To this class of closets belong the Philadelphia valve closet, the Bartholomew valve closet, Harrison's Empire water closet, Carr's Monitor closet, the Lambeth pan closet, Underhay's pan closet, B...
-Valve Closets
To this class belong the following water closets: The old Brahmah closet, Hellyer's improved valve closet, the Lambeth valve closet, Tylor & Sons' patent valve closet, Underhay'a valve closet, Bold...
-Plunger Closets
Among closets of this type I mention Jenning's closets, the Demarest closet, Mott's Hygieia closet, Moore's closet, Zane's Sanitary closet, the California Perfection closet. Myers' Gale closet, ...
-Hopper Closets
There are many varieties of hoppers, made in iron or in earthenware. The latter are much preferable, and the former should never be used unless well enameled inside. Among hopper closets I mention Hel...
-Washout Closets
I have grouped a number of recently invented water closets into this last class which I consider, in principle, far superior to any of the other closets for the following reasons: They are mostly made...
-Latrines
Latrines and trough water closets are frequently used in public places, schools, railroad stations, factories, hospitals, military barracks, etc. Latrines (Fig. 5) consist of a series of strong stonew...
-General Arrangement Of Water Closet Apartments
In speaking of plumbing fixtures in general I have decidedly condemned the usual manner of encasing fixtures with tight woodwork. While this is objectionable with any kind of plumbing apparatus, it is...
-General Arrangement Of Water Closet Apartments. Continued
It would almost seem superfluous to state that vent pipes from closet bowls should never enter a soil or waste pipe, or a vent pipe from traps. But such cases are not rare, and an instance of such per...
-Flushing Appliances
Flushing tanks should be provided in a system of house drainage, whenever it is impracticable to lay the drain at an inclination which will secure a sufficient cleansing flow. The idea underlying most...
-Valuable Scientific Books Published By D. Van Nostrand
*** Any book in this Catalogue sent free by mail, on receipt of price. 23 Murray Street, and 27 Warren Street, New York. Weisbach. A Manual of Theoretical Mechanics. By Julius Weisbach. Ph. D. Trans...
-Van Nostrand's Science Series
No. 17. - Water And Water Supply. By Prop. W. II. Corpield, M. A., of the University College, London. No 18. - Sewerage And Sewage Utili-Zatk X. By Prof. W. II. Corpield, M. A., of the University...







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