Table III Experiments on Water Scour 238

Fig. 228.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 239

Fig. 229.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 240

Fig. 230.

The simplest forms of our "Securitas" trap are shown in Figs. 233 to 237. As will be seen by the drawings, all parts of the water way have an area substantially equal to that of the inlet or outlet pipes, giving it the self-scouring principle of the common S or siphon trap.

*As to this matter, testimony of others known as impartial experts may seem to the reader more convincing than any self praise the author may indulge in. and therefore one or two remarks of recognized authorities may properly be quoted here. Col. Waring, for instance, writes in the "Century Magazine" of the trap as follows: "As an incidental result of his experiments on siphonage, Mr. Putnam, by gradual stages, arrived at the invention of a trap which seems to be a practical one, and which, subjected to tests that were sufficient to break the seal of any ordinary trap even with fair back ventilation, maintained its seal undisturbed. Mr. Putnam's trap, the form of which is illustrated herewith, stands, in its normal condition, entirely full of water. Under strong siphonic action about one-half of this water follows the air toward the drain; this amount being removed, the deflecting surfaces of that portion of the apparatus thus emptied suffice to rob the air-current of its spray, and under no test that has yet been applied, with an open topped soil pipe, can the seal be broken. The interior of the trap is well exposed to view, and the arrangement for cleaning in of the glass cap to remove an obstruction would be a very small price to pay for the absolute security which Mr. Putnam seems to have achieved. Since the above was written, I have tested Mr. Putnam's trap, finding it effective in withstanding siphonage and substantially self cleansing. It seems to me the best trap that I have seen.

When constructed of iron white enamelled, both inside and out, it forms a very attractive fitting, corresponding with the smooth white surfaces of the modern plumbing fixtures and bath room tile finish, and like them, it retains its smoothness and cleanness indefinitely without the rubbing and polishing required by ordinary metal work, nickel plated or otherwise. The shallow construction of the trap allows it to go easily between the bottom of a bath tub and the floor as shown in Figs. 209 and 367, avoiding the inconveniences attending traps reaching below the floor. Fig.

This trap or something like it may probably come into universal use for washstands, baths, and laundry tubs - for urinals also where separate urinals are used." Further on in the same article Col. Waring says: "Not only as confirming my own view, but as an illustration of very thorough and careful experimental work. attention may properly be called to an investigation carried on for the City Board of Health of Boston by J. Pickering Putnam. Esq., an architect of that city. These investigations have been set forth quite fully in illustrated communications to the 'American Architect,' which papers certainly mark a very important step forward in sanitary literature. The deductions to be drawn from these investigations are these," etc. From the "Century Magazine" for December, 1884.

Wm. E. Hoyt, C. E., S. B., Chief Engineer of the B. R. & P. R. R. Co. and at one time Chief Engineer of the Massachusetts Board of Health, says of the trap and other appliances in an address delivered at the annual meeting of the Academy of Sciences in Rochester, N. Y., January, 1886: "I have briefly sketched, in one place, the methods of these scientific investigators. You have seen how patiently and cautiously Mr. Putnam has worked in the development of his Sanitas trap; how, step by step, he advanced, applying all the time scientific principles in the various successive changes of form, which resulted finally in the complete attainment of the object he had in view.

The other ingenious appliances for which we are indebted to Mr. Putnam are all of equal merit. I know of nothing to compare with them in convenience, efficiency and safety. They should be regarded in the same light as valuable discoveries in medical science. By the use of these devices we are able to avoid, in a great measure the evils resulting ordinarily from bad plumbing."

The "Sanitary Record" of London writes of the Sanitas trap on Sept. 15, 1885: "Mr. Putnam, an architect of Boston, undertook, shows its appearance beneath a basin, and Fig. 367 in a modern bath room.

Diagram Fig. 231 shows the strength of the "Securitas" trap in resisting siphonage as compared with other traps. The record of the eight traps given first in this table is taken from that obtained for the City Board of Health, except that in this table the loss of water at each siphoning strain is given in percentages of the whole seal. The figures under each trap show the number of siphoning strains or tank discharges applied without refilling. The performance of the "Securitas" trap is a record taken under a siphonage strain of 20 inches of vacuum on a pneumatic some time ago, an extended series of experiments with traps, in behalf of the City Board of Health of Boston. These investigations were published and illustrated in the American Architect' at the time, and led to the development of the remarkable trap which Mr. Putnam has called the 'Sanitas.' This trap has gained the unqualified approval of many of the leading engineers of America.

"In February of this year Mr. Putnam lectured before the Suffolk District Medical Society, on the 'Principles of Sanitary Plumbing,' and he exhibited before a large audience an exhaustive series of experiments with various apparatus.