The same journal, in a later issue, publishes a letter of D. J. Ebbets, in which he writes: "Now there are several traps that may safely be used to defy the severest siphonage encountered in actual practice, but only one of these can claim to be self-cleansing - namely. Mr. Putnam's Sanitas trap. This trap is extensively used in America. It is the best example that we have at present of an anti-siphonio trap.

"In America, where, partly on account of the severity of the winters, it is usual to fix the soil-pipes internally, and to connect all waste-pipes with the soil-pipes, it becomes generally necessary to ventilate the ordinary S-trap, introducing a complication which is very bewildering to the ordinary plumber, and the adoption of which entails a considerable addition to the cost of the plumbing work. Besides this complication and expense, there are certain evils which are inseparable from such ventilation; so that in America, at any rate, where self-cleansing antisiphonic traps are to be-obtained, it would appear to be rather unwise to continue the use of ventilated S-traps."

Mr. Walter S. Pardee, Supervising Architect of the Board of Education of Minneapolis, Minn., writes of the trap that it "stands well here, I am glad to say. and the law was changed last fall to permit its use (unvented) where back ventilation is not desired," etc. Other cities have done the same. Mr. Pardee adds: "To tell the truth about the matter, I was led to inspect your trap more closely than I would otherwise have done, from the fact that it appeared to be the result of philosophical inquiry rather than of mere guess work.

To quote further laudatory* remarks in favor of the writer's appliances would seem to savor somewhat too much of a dealer's trade advertisement, and the above will therefore be assumed to be sufficient for our purpose of providing a little outside unbiased testimony to corroborate the writer's descriptions and contentions.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 241

Fig. 231.

Seal Retaining Traps.

testing apparatus. The other traps were subjected to about 15 inches of vacuum on a hydraulic apparatus. The Securitas trap was not tested at the same time with the rest, as it was not invented at that time. Later tests on all these and other traps show substantially the same results. Fig. 232 shows the same strains on the Securitas by a different form of diagram.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 242

Fig. 233.

Fig. 233a.

Fig. 233a.

As shown in Fig. 233a the water makes only a single revolution in passing through the refilling chamber. In Fig. 233 a deep seal is used, not for any advantage to the traps, but because a deep seal is sometimes called for in plumbing laws through the mistaken idea that a deep seal is needed for efficiency.

Figs. 234 and 235 show the appearance of the trap constructed of porcelain enameled steel and Figs. 234a and 235a show it in nickel plated brass, the latter being piped for a running or bath tub trap, and the former for a basin.

If desired the top cup may be secured to the lower, as shown in Figs. 222 to 224, by an upper nut instead of by the bolts shown in Figs. 233 to 235. A rubber washer under the nut makes a tight joint, and the law which in some places requires all such joints to be under water is in the light of modern science clearly unjustifiable. Lead caulked bell and spigot joints, which the law allows, are scarcely ever tight after use, whereas steam fitters' joints with paper gaskets are tight against any pressure. Our upper rubber joint is on the same principle, and is, moreover, under water pressure at every discharge of the fixture which constantly verifies its tightness.

Porcelain enameling on steel has now been carried to a very high degree of perfection as illustrated by its great durability in cooking utensils, where it has to stand the test of the roughest usage, even holding boiling water on a red-hot stove. The usage is not so severe in plumbing. Very rough usage will, of course, crack the enamel. But equally rough usage will destroy the appearance of any ornamented construction. Porcelain enamel is not new in plumbing, its use in bath tubs, basins and closets having long been successful. It is only new in traps, and with this improvement the entire bath room outfit, including walls, fixtures, traps and piping may be constructed, harmoniously, of white enamel, giving an effect of very great beauty.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 244

Fig. 237.

Fig. 237 shows four fixtures constructed and set with the simple piping we have advocated. The simplicity of this arrangement is to be compared with the complication shown in Fig. 262, page 266, which is reproduced from a drawing by Mr. Hoyt to illustrate his interesting article on safe plumbing published in 1888 in the "Popular Science Monthly." The same four fixtures are provided in both cases but the cost of the complicated arrangement is more than double that of the simple one. In the former there are 71 joints and in the latter only 14. In the former bell and spigot hand caulked lead joints are used. The strains on the hubs made by the caulking hammer and the rigidity of the joint require here the use of extra heavy piping. Whereas the flexible joints used in the simpler system allow of the use of "standard" weight piping with entire safety. This constitutes still another important item of economy.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 245

Fig. 234.

Fig. 234a.

Table III Experiments on Water Scour 246

Fig. 235.

Fig. 235a.

Fig 236. Rearranged from Catalog by Courtesy of Federal Huber Co.

Fig 236. Rearranged from Catalog by Courtesy of Federal Huber Co.