Fig. 432. Writer's Early Device for Perpetual Refilling of Trap Seal Reduced by Evaporation, Siphonage or Other Cause.

Fig. 432. Writer's Early Device for Perpetual Refilling of Trap Seal Reduced by Evaporation, Siphonage or Other Cause.

Fig. 433 shows in section one of the numerous direct flush-

Fig. 433. Flush Valve. (By permission of Nethery Hydraulic Valve Co., N. Y.)

Fig. 433. Flush Valve. (By permission of Nethery Hydraulic Valve Co., N. Y.)

Fig. 434. The  Boston Flush Valve, (By permission of the Phillips Flushing Tank Co., Boston.)

Fig. 434. The "Boston" Flush Valve, (By permission of the Phillips Flushing Tank Co., Boston.) ing valves in common use now for pressure service without individual closet cisterns.

Fig. 434 shows another kind of these direct connected valves, Fig. 434a a thind kind, and Fig. 435 a convenient method of attaching it to a closet, and the closet to the wall.

Fig. 434a. Sectional View of Flushing Valve.*

Fig. 434a. Sectional View of Flushing Valve.*

Fig. 435. The Flushometer Attached to a Water Closet Having Its Support on a Fireproof Wall or Partition.A†

Fig. 435. The Flushometer Attached to a Water Closet Having Its Support on a Fireproof Wall or Partition.A†

*Called the "Watrous Aquameter." Made by the Federal Huber Co., N. Y.

‡The Water Closet made by the same firm.

Fig. 436 shows the ordinary form of siphon jet closet now in vogue. The action of the jet is aided by a suction pull on the drain pipe side of the trap created by the form of the down cast limb beyond the trap, and this suction being variable in strength, sometimes uncovers the jet and allows its full roaring noise to be heard.

Fig. 436. Ordinary Form of Siphon Jet Closet Obtaining Siphon

Fig. 436. Ordinary Form of Siphon Jet Closet Obtaining Siphon Action in Waste Pipe.

Let us now examine our table of desiderata and see in how far our "Securitas" closet, Figs. 429 to 431, conforms thereto.

1. Simplicity. We find in it the simplest form possible with closets. The trap and the bowl are one and the same thing. Each forms half of the other. The flushing is accomplished by the pressure of the water only, and without machinery of any kind in the closet. We have, in fact, the simplicity of the short hopper, which is the simplest form of water-closet known.

2. Quickness and thoroughness of flushing. The maximum of rapidity of flushing is attained by having the supply-pipe always full of water, so that the action at the lower end takes place simultaneously with the operation of the valve, and all delay and loss of power occasioned by the water falling from the cistern through the pipe and against the resistance of the enclosed air is avoided. Where the power is taken from a common cistern at the top of the building serving all the stories below, or where it is taken direct from the city main, the same result is obtained by the use of a pressure valve or a flushometer of some form, the water being reasonably free from grit as it should be through proper sedimentation or filtration. The combined action of the two lower jets of water is, moreover, as already described, such as to accomplish the removal of the waste matters with the utmost speed, in virtue of their co-operation.

The thoroughness of the flushing or cleansing action, with a given quantity of water, is evidently in direct proportion to the rapidity and direction of the action, it being assumed that the surfaces to be flushed are properly constructed to receive it, as is the case with the closet under consideration. The form and volume of the standing water in the bowl is such as to protect the sides from being fouled by adhesive matters. The solid and heavy wastes, which are the adhesive ones, cannot fall against these sides. If liquid or semi-liquid matters are projected against them they will not stick. Therefore these sides require not so much great force, as a uniform distribution of the flushing water. The parts which require scouring force are those below and beyond, including the trap and the main soil and drain pipes, and it is these parts which in this closet receive it. The scouring action on the pipes is here equal to that of the plunger closet, while it exerts less siphoning action on fixtures below the latter, because air freely follows the discharge and prevents the formation of a vacuum.

3. Freedom from all unscoured parts. The closet contains no cesspool in its construction, and has the minimum extent of surface, interior and exterior, possible in a water-closet.

4. Economy in construction and water consumption.

Being constructed of a single piece of earthenware of compact and simple form, this desideratum is met. The consumption of water is reduced to a minimum, in the manner already explained. No loss of power is sustained in the supply-pipe, and each drop in the closet acts in the most effective manner, in concert with the rest, to produce a rapid and thorough flush.

5. Compactness and convenience of form. The closet occupies the minimum of space, as may be seen from the drawings.

6. Amplitude of standing water in the bowl. The standing water has the proper form and depth, and its surface is calculated to stand at the most desirable distance below the seat of the closet. It will be seen, upon reflection and experiment, and in testing different forms of water-closets, that the nearer the seat the surface of the standing water can be brought without causing inconvenience the less liability there will be for spattering.