7. Accessibility and visibility of all parts, including the trap. A study of the drawings will show that this desideratum has been attained.
8. Smoothness of material. The closet being constructed of glazed earthenware in a single piece, and everywhere with easy bends, this requirement is fully answered.
9. Strength and durability of construction. The compact and simple form of the closet, the central position of the base under the bowl giving it equal and firm support, and the soundness and reliability of its soil-pipe connection, give it the greatest strength and durability possible with water-closets.
10. Facility and reliability of jointing. There is but a single, simple, and strong brass coupling connection to be made with the supply, and a single connection with the waste-pipe. The small coupling at the flushing rim for a seat vent and cistern overflow may be used or closed up, as desired.
11. Security against evaporation and siphonage. The new principle of supply already described, together with the unusual depth of the water-seal, renders this closet practically secure against loss of seal through evaporation and siphonage. A further protection consists in the use of a Securitas trap under an adjoining fixture so that a partial vacuum in the soil pipe caused by siphonic action will be broken by the fresh air passing through the shallow trap without destroying its seal.
12. Ease and convenience of Hushing. It is only necessary to actuate the valve and immediately release it again to obtain a sufficient, and no more than sufficient, flush. The trap and bowl refill themselves automatically after the flush. The valve may also be operated by a simple seat or door attachment, if desired.
13. Noiselessness in operation. It has hitherto been assumed that it would be impossible to combine noiseless action with a powerful and rapid water scour. Nevertheless, this has been accomplished in the manner already described; and the closet may be used as is agreeable to civilized people, without the "flourish of trumpets," usually attending the occasion.
14. Neatness of appearance.
In order to complete the idea of having everything in the bath room finished with a pure white enameled surface, the writer devised a pull to be made of opal glass or porcelain filled with white plaster, as shown in Fig. 437. Having the texture and surface appearance of the earthenware of the closet and other plumbing fixtures as well as of the soil and waste pipes which may also be porcelain enameled in the finest work, as described in connection with his new pipe system, it harmonizes with them in appearance, and requires no scrubbing or burnishing to keep it permanently as bright as when new.
Fig. 437. The Sanitas Opal W. C. Pull.
Figs. 438 to 440 show the writer's device for coupling pipes to earthenware, to which he gave the name "Sanitas."
This coupling consists of a brass tube with a trumpet-shaped mouth fitting into a corresponding inverted trumpet-shaped opening in the earthenware, together with an elastic gasket and coupling nut. The hole in the earthenware is made just large enough to receive, with a reasonable amount of play room, the trumpet end of the brass tube. The rubber gasket is moulded just large enough to slip over the threading of the tube, by means of which the whole is tightened up.
Fig. 439. Sanitas Coupling, ready to be connected.
Fig. 440. Sanitas Coupling, connected.
The simple method of making the connection is as follows : - The supply pipe to be connected with the earthenware is first soldered to the small or spigot end of the tube, having the brass washer and coupling nut in place. The rubber gasket is then stretched over the trumpet end of the tube, and pushed down until it occupies the position in Fig. 439. The trumpet end and gasket will then slip into the hole in the earthenware, and the joint is finally made tight by screwing up the coupling nut, which may be done with the hand even, without the use of a wrench or any tool whatever. But the use of an ordinary wrench will of course render the tightening easier. The coupling when connected in place is shown in section in Fig. 440. It may be taken apart by simply reversing the operation of putting together. The nut is first unscrewed and the pipe pushed about one-half inch into the earthenware. This enables the rubber gasket to resume its original shape, as shown in Fig. 439, the outside shoulder of the gasket preventing its being pushed in with the pipe. The whole may then be withdrawn from the pottery.
By using this coupling, tightness may be secured even if the surfaces of the earthenware are not perfectly true and smooth. The elastic gasket has a bearing on both inner and outer surfaces of the earthenware, giving double security against leakage; and inasmuch as no hard surface comes in contact with the earthenware, there is no danger of fracturing the latter in tightening up, as so frequently happens with other couplings, to the great expense and annoyance of the plumber. The longer the coupling stands, the tighter and safer it becomes; since the rubber gasket, after years, glues itself to the surfaces of contact so tightly that, were it not for the outer shoulder of the rubber gasket, it could not then be disconnected from the closet except by cutting it out with a knife. Soon after its introduction the majority of the potteries of the United States adopted the "San-itas" coupling as their standard under a royalty arrangement with the manufacturers.
As they are generally made, urinals are very objectionable things in private houses.
For public places an automatic flushing cistern is frequently used, and this is perhaps the only certain method of insuring a sufficient flush for single urinals constructed in the usual way. But it. involves a great consumption of water, inasmuch as the flushing goes on always, whether it be required or not. This is not only very wasteful, but also dilutes the sewage by so much more, and thus renders its disposal by land irrigation or filtration correspondingly more difficult.
For private houses it is much better to allow the water closet to serve also as a urinal. It is sometimes advisable to set the closet on a platform so that the top of its bowl shall be at the height of a urinal, the platform extending out a little beyond the front of the bowl, so that the fixtures may be used equally conveniently as a water closet or as a urinal as desired. This is also sometimes advantageous in giving more pitch to the waste pipe from the closet. The bowl, containing already a large body of standing water, dilutes the urine and prevents its fouling the sides. Habit with water closets leads to its flushing after its use as a urinal at times when the ordinary form of urinal would have been left unflushed. But should, by any chance, the flushing be neglected, the next use of the fixture as a water closet would insure its cleansing. Moreover, by combining the two fixtures in one, economy both of space and first cost is obtained, while the offensive appearance and odor of the urinal is avoided, and the consumption of water is greatly diminished. Here again the plumbing is advantageously simplified.
In public buildings, however, such as hotels, railway stations, manufactories, school or club houses, where proper and systematic attention may be expected, urinals may become not only desirable, but absolutely necessary.
Figs. 441 and 442 represent two ornamental public urinals.
They should be provided in various places in the main thoroughfares easily accessible to the public as an important sanitary measure.
It is best to have the flushing effected by some automatic device operated by a treadle arrangement or by the door of the apartment in which the urinal is placed, or else by a special attendant, so that as little water as possible need be added to the sewage, for reasons already explained.
It is calculated that for stall urinals having a constant water flushing, the consumption of water often equals a half a gallon per minute per stall.
The width of the stall should not be less than two feet, as some persons will not enter a narrow stall. The best of ventilation should always be provided in the room where urinals are placed. The divisions should not exceed five feet in height. Beyond this there is only a waste of material, and more to be kept clean. It goes without saying that the smoother and more impervious the material of which these stalls are made the better.