The Chinese dispose of their sewage, not by sewers, but by scavengers, street gutters and canals. "At Shanghai," says Prof. Morse, "as one enters the native town he encounters men bearing uncovered buckets upon the ends of a carrying stick; these are removers of night soil, and they have their regular routes through the city. If one follows these scavengers he sees them going to the banks of a canal near by and emptying the buckets with a splash into a long scow, or other kind of boat, which, after being filled, is towed away to the rice fields in the country. The stuff is often spilled in the water by careless emptying. The canal has no current, at least not enough to disturb the great ooze and sickly yellow condition of the water, which is thick with foulness; yet beside this boat people are dipping up the water for drinking and culinary purposes. Smallpox, at the time of my visit, was epidemic in the town, and I brushed past men in the narrow alleys who were covered with eruptions; everywhere the ground was slimy with filth, and the state of the town was indescribable." Fig. 399 shows the large wooden buckets with close-fitting covers which were used in the better class of Chinese houses, and were emptied every day by a scavenger. They served the purpose of the pails in the English so-called "pail system" of sewage disposal. These buckets ornamented the back yards of Chinese landlords as ash vessels do ours at home.

Fig . 399. Chinese Scavenger's Buckets.†

Fig-. 399. Chinese Scavenger's Buckets.

Fig. 400. Chinese Earthenware Urinal.

Fig. 400. Chinese Earthenware Urinal.

†"Latrines of the East," by Edward S. Morse. Reprinted from The American Architect of March 18, 1893.

In these back yards, also, are sometimes seen the most primitive possible kinds of open-air earth closets, composed of large earthen jars embedded in the ground, and against one edge a low framework of wood. Piles of ashes from the stoves are placed near by, and this is spread with the material as in all earth closets.

Square urinals made of stoneware are used, as shown in Fig. 400. "These,' says the author, "are used by old people, and I was told that they also served as pillows or head rests."

Fig. 401 shows one of the public latrines of Canton, the existence of which is always evident to the nostrils, owing to their very filthy condition. A urinal runs along in front of the stalls as shown, and the absence of any kind of water flush is largely responsible for their unsavory character.

Fig. 402 shows a Japanese dry closet, which are private and in striking contrast with the foul places of China and Corea, which are, as a rule, public. Below the rectangular floor opening is the receptacle in the form of a large earthen jar or half an oil barrel sunk in the ground, emptied every few days by men who pay for the privilege. The author was informed that the substance is so highly valued that in Hiroshima, in the renting of the poorer houses, if three persons occupied a room together its value paid for the rent of one, and if five occupied the room no rent was charged. "The result of the transference of this material into the country leaves the shores of a city absolutely pure. No malarious flats nor noisome odors, arising from littoral areas, curse the inhabitants, as with us."

Fig. 401. Public Latrines at Canton, China.

Fig. 401. Public Latrines at Canton, China.

Fig. 402. Japanese Dry Closet.

Fig. 402. Japanese Dry Closet.

Fig. 403 shows the door of a closet in Tokio inlaid in designs in different colored woods, so exquisitely clean and beautiful that the place might properly be called, as the author says, a cabinet. 'The urinal is usually of wood, though porcelain ones are often seen. The wooden ones are in the form of a tapering box secured against the wall of the closet. Sometimes sprays of a sweet-scented shrub are placed in these and often replaced."

Fig. 403. Japanese Privy Door and Urinal.

Fig. 403. Japanese Privy Door and Urinal.

Fig. 404 gives a view of the exterior of one of these cabinets. It is in an inn at Hachi-ishi, near Nikko. The approach is shown by the planking in the foreground with a pair of wooden clogs, which are often provided, to be worn in this place. "From this, at right angles, runs a narrow platform, having for its border the natural trunk of a tree; the corner of a little cupboard is seen at the left, the ceiling is composed of netting made of thin strips of woods, and below is a dado of bamboo. The opening to the first apartment is framed by a twisted grape-vine, while other sticks in their natural condition make up the framework. Beyond the arched opening is another one closed by a swinging door; and this is usually the only place in the house where one finds a hinged door, except, perhaps, on the tall closet under the kitchen stairs. Outside a little screen fence is built, a few plants neatly trimmed below - and a typical privy of the better class is shown. The wooden trough standing on four legs and holding a bucket of water and a wash basin is evidently an addition for the convenience of foreign guests. The chodzu-bachi with towel rack suspended above, as already described, is the universal accompaniment of this place.'

Fig. 404. Japanese Privy.

Fig. 404. Japanese Privy.

Fig. 393 shows a closed privy such as is seen on the Malay peninsula built over running water, somewhat removed from the house, and having a little bridge running to it.

In China, Java, Sumatra, India, Russia, Greece, and in the Orient generally, the grossest negligence and ignorance prevails in the disposal of all forms of organic waste matters, most shocking and disgusting to the traveler. But, after all, what can be more barbarous than our own country cesspools, which are foul and pestilential beyond description? Where they adjoin the houses their poisonous odors penetrate to the living rooms; where they are removed several yards, great exposure to the weather, very dangerous to the health, especially in winter, is involved in reaching them.

The Massachusetts State Board of Health has said of them that "they are a disgrace to civilization," and "the march of civilization is in no way more correctly marked than by perfection in water closets. If to this rule a universal application were given it would place our farmers, as well as the vast majority of our rural population, well back in the ranks of barbarism."

For this we are far more to blame than the ignorant people of the East, because our libraries are full of literature on sewage disposal for cities, towns, villages and isolated country seats, teaching our people how surface and subsurface irrigation and other scientific methods of sewage disposal may be successfully employed with the water carriage system, rendering these abominable cesspools, as well as the pollution of our rivers and harbors by direct discharges from sewers, utterly unnecessary.