Fig. 258.

Trap Testing Apparatus 270

Fig. 259.

They are perfectly right in the matter of the gradual filling up of all unscoured pockets. Why, then, do they so carefully avoid showing this clogging in the mouth of the back vent pipe at the crown of the "S" trap? Under what law of physics or chemistry, or by what miraculous intervention or friendly influence has this, the most unscoured pocket of all, escaped contamination altogether, when all the other pockets shown in the cesspool traps have been packed full? And why do they always entirely avoid showing the "back vent" pipe in their representations of the befouled "cesspool" traps when they drag them out to be soundly and very properly lashed by their criticisms?

A truthful representation of these various traps should show them equipped with the back vent pipes required by the present law, when they would appear as in Figs. 257 to 259, inclusive.

The public have been hoodwinked so long by the misrepresentations of these writers that we sometimes feel like doubting the famous assertion of Abraham Lincoln that you can not deceive "all the people all the time."

For an intelligent nation like ours to have swallowed the "back vent" humbug for a quarter of a century in this progressive age seems dangerously near a refutation of the saying we have always taken such pride in quoting.

The best and perhaps the only way to prevent grease accumulations in traps and throughout the entire waste pipe system is to require the use of fixtures everywhere constructed on the principle of the flush tank.

The result of the reading of this paper was a unanimous vote on the part of the Boston Society of Architects to forward to the proper city authorities a recommendation to repeal the back vent law. A committee was appointed and counsel employed to attend to the matter. The efforts of the society, however, in this direction have never met with success, and they have not ascertained with entire certainty from what source the opposition came.

Fig. 260. Complicated Piping in a House on 5th Ave. New York.

Fig. 260. Complicated Piping in a House on 5th Ave. New York.

The next two cuts present a few illustrations of unnecessary complication in plumbing. The first (Fig. 260) shows the piping of a slop sink in a house lately built on Fifth avenue, New York. The sink forms one of four built over each other in successive stories, and all the pipes shown in the drawing are built for their service. Each sink is -vented just below its strainer into a large galvanized iron ventilating flue. The trap is vented into a 3-inch cast iron flue. A lead safe is used under the sink at the floor and connects with a 1-inch iron pipe leading to the cellar. So much for a slop sink.

No expense has been spared to render the mechanical part of this job perfect, and it is, in fact, a very beautiful piece of workmanship. Yet it is not good plumbing. In the first place the trap seal is trebly besieged for evaporation. In the second place no proper means of flushing the apparatus has been provided. In the third place the outlet and trap vent pipes, which both enter cold flues, are worse than useless. In the fourth place the safe and its waste pipe are superfluous; and in the fifth place the whole fixture is an unnecessary nuisance in a private house. Even where a proper flushing rim is provided for slop-hoppers servants will not make proper use of it, and the fixture soon begins to emit a disgusting odor

I have added a house trap vent pipe and an interior rain water conductor, because these are common accessories. To be consistent the lead safe waste pipe should also be vented, for if it is ever to come into service at all its service will consist in carrying off dirty water. A trap at its bottom will inevitably soon have its stagnating seal evaporated out, and air from the basement will rise through it into the rooms, carrying with it the impurities coming from the entire length of the pipe. With a simpler system of plumbing one of the chief objects of a safe and its waste pipe would be eliminated, and this item of expense, complication and danger would be avoided.

The next cut (Fig. 261) shows a portion of a wash basin and bath-tub in another New York residence. Part of the casing has been removed to show the work. What wonder that the poor plumber makes his frequent and serious blunders in the connection of his pipes - "by-passes" - so called! What wonder that the unhappy house owner becomes utterly discouraged at the sight of all this confusion, and thenceforth resolves to make it his chief mission in life to dissuade his friends from indulging like him in the luxury of set plumbing!

The money thrown away on all this worse than useless

Fig. 261. Complicated Plumbing in another New York Residence.*

Fig. 261. Complicated Plumbing in another New York Residence.* piping should have been devoted to obtaining stronger and better fixtures, setting them in a handsome and workmanlike manner and cooperating with the city fathers in installing a scientific and beautiful system of street sewers.

Finally Fig. 262* shows in perspective still another illustration of the extravagances complication has introduced into plumbing work. It is from a house in New York City and this one part of it contains 72 joints. In another place I shall show how better results could have been attained with 16 joints.

Another illustration of trap testing apparatus upon which interesting experiments on siphonage have been made is given in Fig. 263. This apparatus was used at the Museum of Hygiene, U. S. Navy Dept., at Washington, and they showed substantially the same results as the experiments already described.