Fig. 366d. First Automatic Flushing Sink.

Fig. 366d. First Automatic Flushing Sink.

Fig. 366e. Plan of the Automatic Sink.

Fig. 366e. Plan of the Automatic Sink.

Figs. 366d to 366f represent in perspective, section and plan the writer's first device for complete automatic operation. It has been assumed at the outset as an indispensable condition in the design of the apparatus that absolutely nothing should be dependent upon the intelligence and care of the servant, and that by no possibility could the waste passages become clogged, either by accident or by design. In short, that the operation should be entirely automatic, and that the form of the outlet should be such that no solid refuse could possibly gain access to it.

Fig. 366f. Section of Automatic Sink.

Fig. 366f. Section of Automatic Sink.

It consists of the combination of a square flush pot with an ordinary kitchen sink, in such a manner as to provide a sink of the ordinary appearance and form above, but having a deep portion or flush pot at the end, with an automatic discharge.

An upper or horizontal strainer covers the entire flush pot and is hinged to one end of the sink, so that it may be opened when it is desired to use the deep part of the sink. The sink is discharged by means of a self-acting siphon, and a vertical strainer is interposed between the flush pot and its siphon. The short arm of the siphon is trapped with a seal-retaining trap just behind the vertical strainer. This strainer slides upwards in a groove to give access to the trap when desired, but closes again automatically by its own weight as soon as released. Clean-out openings are provided at the trap and weir chamber, and gives access to every part of the waste system. No bones and solid refuse can be scraped into the discharge outlet and dropped into the waste pipe, because this pipe ascends instead of descends at the outlet; and should the trap be clogged, it will simply cause the water to cease to flow out until the obstruction is removed, which can easily be done by simply raising the lower strainer and lifting out the obstruction by hand.

The operation of the sink and flush pot is as follows: The sink is used in the ordinary manner until the flush pot fills to the height of the siphon overflow. When this point has been reached, the next discharge of a quart or two of water suddenly emptied from the washing pan charges the siphon and causes the entire contents of the flush pot to rush out through the waste passages, filling them full bore, and scouring them from end to end. The solid matter and large lumps of grease will be left on the bottom of the flush pot, and must be removed by the servant in the proper manner, inasmuch as they cannot possibly be removed in any other way.

Thus the great annoyances, expenses and dangers arising from the discharge of sink refuse are avoided. The additional cost of the actual flushing apparatus over that of an ordinary kitchen sink is trifling. But the sink contains its own trap. The trap is also anti-siphonic, and hence requires no back venting.

The deep portion of the sink may be conveniently used for washing large kitchen utensils which require deeper water than is to be had in ordinary sinks.

Figs. 366 h and 366i show the writer's recent improvements on this sink, to which he has given the name "Securitas" to distinguish it from the old "Sanitas" design. The advantages are greater simplicity and economy and a much better appearance. The trap is a simple return bend, which with the flush pot as a reservoir chamber and the long upcast limb is anti-siphonic. Back pressure is, as we have shown, to be expected in basements, and not siphon-age. The flush pot renders back pressure entirely harmless, as is evident.

Fig. 366g. Section of  Securitas Sink.

Fig. 366g. Section of "Securitas Sink.

Trap 366h. Section of  Securitas Sink.

Trap 366h. Section of "Securitas" Sink.

The weir chamber is placed preferably under the trap and the whole flush pot attachment thus becomes compact enough to be cast in a single piece. The outlet is enlarged at the strainer to give more room for the water to escape, and the strainer is hinged to the bottom so that it closes automatically and cannot be removed by the cook. This form of trap and strainer is much easier to clean than the old form of bottle trap originally used, and it does away with the need of a clean-out screw under the trap. Fig. 366g shows a form having the weir chamber facing to the left instead of under the trap. This gives room for a trap clean-out should it be preferred.

Fig. 366 l. Perspective of Securitas Sink.

Fig. 366 l. Perspective of Securitas Sink.

Baths.

Fig. 366 from Joly represents in the ancient baths almost all the operations practised in the public baths after the exercises of the gymnasium, namely, rubbing with the flesh brush, massage, nerve adjustment or manipulation and douche bathing. These processes, imitated in the East, are similar to our Turkish baths.

Japanese Baths.

Prof. Morse compares the bathing facilities of the Japanese with ours. Whereas with us ample bathing facilities are confined to a comparatively few rich people, in Japan "nearly every house among the higher and middle classes possesses the most ample arrangements for hot baths; and "Japanese Homes." even among the poorer classes, in the country as well as in the city, this convenience is not wanting, with the added convenience of public baths everywhere attainable if desired."

Fig. 366j. Bath Tub with outside Heating Chamber. From Morse's

Fig. 366j. Bath-Tub with outside Heating Chamber. From Morse's

Fig. 366J shows a common form of Japanese bath tub with arrangement for heating the water attached to it.

This stove consists of a small wooden water barrel having a copper smoke flue passing through it in which charcoal is burned. The water passes through a large bamboo tube having a little square door within the tub which the bather may close if the water becomes too hot. "These tubs," says Prof. Morse, "stand on a large wooden floor, the planks of which incline to a central gutter. Here the bather scrubs himself with a separate bucket of water, after having literally parboiled himself in water the temperature of which is so great that it is impossible for a foreigner to endure it."

Sometimes the bottom half of the bath tub is made of iron, as in Fig. 366k, and the fire is then built directly be-

Fig. 366k

Fig. 366k neath it, the bather standing upon a rack of wood to protect his feet from burning. "This tub is called a Goyemon buro, named after Ishikawa Goyemon - a famous robber of Taiko's time, who was treated to a bath in boiling oil." In Fig. 366m a copper tube forming the smoke pipe passes directly through the bottom of the tub. The bottom of the tub forms the fireplace, a simple wire grating supporting the charcoal, the combustion of which rapidly heats the water. A shallow pan below the grating forms the ash pit.

Kitchen Pantry Sinks And Baths 399

Fig. 3661

Fig. 366m. Bath Tub with Inside Flue.

Fig. 366m. Bath-Tub with Inside Flue.

In Fig. 366nthe bath tub is in two sections, separated by a perforated partition of the room, the heating apparatus being on the further side of the partition.

The bath tub, like all other plumbing fixtures, should have as little woodwork as possible about it.

The first tubs made in modern plumbing work consisted of a wooden box lined with lead, some of which exist today. The lead cannot be polished clean and therefore always presents an uninviting appearance. The metal is also so soft that it cannot retain a smooth surface. Next came

Fig. 366n. Bath Tub in Section, the heating oven being outside the

Fig. 366n. Bath-Tub in Section, the heating oven being outside the the zinc tub, which could be kept cleaner and cost less than lead, but is not so durable. It is never now used except in the cheapest kind of work. The copper tub succeeded the zinc, the metal being from 12 to 20 ounces per foot in weight and forming a lining to a wooden frame. This copper tub, heavily coated with tin, has enjoyed popularity in the best houses until the advent of the porcelain tub, when it was found that the appearance of copper, especially when the tin plating became partly worn off, was quite unendurable in appearance, and quite too easily dented to remain fashionable, and it was required to take a secondary place in favor of the Royal Porcelain all earthenware, or porcelain-lined tub with its snowy whiteness and its icy coldness to the touch until well warmed up by hot water. Cast iron tubs, plain, painted and galvanized, appeared before the porcelain-lined iron, but had only a short career of usefulness, the paint and galvanizing soon wearing off and leaving a very dirty, rusty article, much despised by all but the poor and unfortunate.