*A further consideration of this subject is given In my pamphlet entitled "The Outlook for the Artisan and His Art," published by C. H. Kerr & Co., Chicago, Ill.
Fig. 5. A Fourteenth Century Cistern and Basin.
Fig. 6. Early Carved Basins.
Our initial cut, Fig. 4, shows a most interesting fountain lavatory in the Abbey of Fontenay, France, which was for the use of the monks, fifteen of whom at a time could wash their hands in the spacious basin. They were accustomed to come to their ablutions in a most orderly manner, marching in single file along the arcade, and entering the basin court through one arch, and after the ceremony, filing out again through another.
Fig. 7. Early Carved Basin.
Unfortunately these beautiful communal basins, so decorative from an architectural point of view, were everywhere destroyed in France by the monks themselves when they abandoned the custom of washing at the same time and together.
Here, Fig. 5, is a picture of a 14th century cistern and basin in Battle Hall, Sussex, England,* and Figs. 6 and 7 are other highly decorated basins in Gothic design of the 13th and 15th centuries.† Fig. 8 is a design of a fountain executed by Viol-let le Duc in mediaeval style. It is constructed of copper engraved and stamped in high relief. The cistern is filled by lifting the roof. Below is a lavatory for the hands, and towel racks are built into the corner towers. Figures 9, 10, 11, 12 and 14 show the artistic manner in which the mediaeval architects designed their exterior lead and stone water leaders, and how skilfully 'the plumbers, who were then, as the name implies, workers in lead in all its forms, executed these designs. Figures 9 to 14 show water spouts, gutter connections, and roofing details. The last two show how the edges of the sheets of lead were bent up and covered so as to make expansion joints without the use of solder. The section D shows the manner in which the sheets were rolled together.
Fig. 8. Drinking Fountain and Lavatory.
•From "Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages," published by J. H. Parker, London. Vol. 2, p. 46.
†From Vlollet le Due. Dictionnaire do l'Arehiteeture Vol VII pp. 196-197. Figs. 9 to 19 are all from Vlollet le Due.
Figure 15 shows us the great beauty of plumbers' lead scroll work in the grand epoch of mediaeval art.
Figs. 16 and 17 are two French mediaeval baptismal fonts.
Figure 18 shows one of the richly carved and beautiful lavatories which adorned some of the monastaries and palaces in the middle ages. They were often placed in the grand hall itself, and consisted of great basins of marble, copper or lead, intended for the daily use of the host and for his guests before a repast. They were provided with quite a number of little gargoyles or jets to throw the water upon the hands of the users. All these ornamental lavatories have disappeared from the monastaries since the revolution of 1793. They usually had the form of a large tank, long and deep, with an open trough or sink in front to receive the water. This lavatory adorned the abbey of
Figs. 13 and 14.
Fig. 16. Baptismal Font in the Church of Saint Peter at Mont-didier, France. 12th Century.
Fig. 17. French Baptismal Font of the 13th Century.
Saint Armand of Rouen and contained the coats of arms of the various abbesses. It was cast in bronze in the 13th or 14th century and was made in three compartments, each devoted to a particular order in the convent.
Figure 19 shows one end of this lavatory in detail.
Figs. 20 and 21 are compositions by Bouchet** and represent public baths in Pompeian style, the pictures being, however, rather designed in the spirit of Pompeian architecture than taken from actual restorations. You see how the architects, hydraulic engineers and plumbers have cooperated to produce resorts so charming as to constantly tempt the citizens to habits of cleanliness.
Fig. 18. Lavatory in the Abbey of Saint Amand at Rouen.*
Fig. 22 is a Nymphee or beautiful bathing "Grotto" of a wealthy Roman patrician. This involved a somewhat more complicated system of hot and cold water supply. Self-closing faucets had not been specified, and so the five fixtures on the right and left of the tub had to be left running "full bore" at all hours of the day and night. Fig. 23 is an illustration of the splendid art of India applied to water works. It represents the waste weir outlet of Kangra tank, Ahmedabad, India.
Finally, our frontispiece shows the magnificent Baths of Diocletian, the beautiful drawing being the production of Edmond Paulin, winner of the Grand Prize of Rome, of the French School of Fine Arts.
*From "Dictionnaire du Mobilier Francais, Vol. I. By Viollet le Due. Published by A. Morel, Paris.
**From "Compositions Antiques," by Jules Bouchet, Paris.
Figs. 1 to 19 are from Viollet le Due's "Dictlonaire de l'Archi-tecture.
Fig. 20. Public Bath in Pompeian Style. From Bouchet.
Science and Art in Plumbing.
Fig. 21. Public Bath in Pompeian Style. From Bouchet.
Fig. 22. Roman Bathing Grotto, or "Nymphee." From Bouchet.
Science and Art in Plumbing.
Fig. 23. Waste Weir Outlet of Kangra Tank, Ahmedabad, India,
From The Sanitary Engineer and Construction Record. This view is one of the most beautiful examples of hydraulic con struction in the world.