When the pan is tilted, the movement causes a spattering due to the resistance of the confined air in the receiver, which sometimes projects a small body of water high up into the air.

The Form of the Pan closet is (a) complicated and bulky.

(b) Its receiver occupies so much space below the bowl that there is no room for the trap above the floor. This is a most serious fault. The trap should never be buried out of sight and out of reach. Should it lose its water seal through evaporation, siphonage, or other cause, or become in any way defective, the loss cannot be seen, and poisonous gases may make their way unobserved into the house.

(c) In all Pan closets the bowl is too wide, and the surface of the standing water at its bottom too small and too far down below the seat. It is found that the lower the water stands in the bowl the greater the spattering occasioned by the falling wastes. This surface can safely be brought within six inches of the seat without inconvenience in the use of the closet, and this distance, where the flushing is effected properly, and without spattering, is the best.

(d) The bowl should be narrower, and the sides should be more nearly perpendicular. A narrow bowl is, within reasonable limits, equally convenient whether used as a closet, urinal or slop hopper. In all these respects the Pan closet is, with the exception of the dry hoppers, the best example known of defective form.

(e) No part of the trap, and but a very small part of the receiver, is visible from the outside. The accumulation of filth in these parts goes on without the knowledge of the owner, nor, if known, could it be reached and removed.

(f) The presence of the pan renders the use of this closet as a slop hopper unsafe, because it causes spattering and overflowing when large quantities of slops are suddenly thrown into it. There should be no obstruction to the full outflow of the water.

The Material or combination of materials used in the Pan closet forms another defective feature; the iron rusts and the copper corrodes, and the whole apparatus, ugly as it is at its best when new, becomes truly monumental in its hid-eousness when rusted, browned and scarred with old age.

The Construction. - (a) The pan, receiver, and all the machinery connected with them are unnecessary, because the waste can be better removed without them, and they form no additional security against the entrance of sewer-air. Until within a few years it was regarded as important to hide the trap and working parts of plumbing from view, under the assumption that they must necessarily retain at times waste matter offensive to the sight. Now, however, we have learned that with properly constructed fixtures all waste matters can be entirely and instantly removed after use, and that it is not only advantageous but necessary for perfect security that all parts should be visible to insure their proper use and cleanliness.

Consequently we see that the pan and its bulky receiver are worse than superfluous since they require hiding, and that the labor and money thrown away upon these useless complications might be saved for improving and strengthening useful parts.

(b) There is nothing in the mechanism of the Pan closet to provide against the loss of its water seal through evaporation or siphonage, though such a provision is possible. The loss of the water in the trap would remain undiscovered so long as the odor of the entering products of decomposition escaped observation, and it is known that the most dangerous of the carbon compounds of putrefaction are odorless.

(c) There are two joints between the bowl and the trap where there should be none.

The connection between the bowl and the receiver being, in the regulation Pan closet, made with putty alone, without bolts or screws of any kind, a slight shock will make a crack in this connection, and Pan closets are at any time liable to be rendered leaky at this joint. The crack being out of sight and above the water line, there is nothing to give warning of the entrance of foul air. This is one of the ways in which foul air may enter.

The receiver, usually coated with filth, acts, in fact, as nothing more or less than a retort for the generation of foul gases which escape at numerous holes seemingly provided for the purpose.

Every time the pan is tilted, the water discharged into the receiver displaces a corresponding bulk of foul air, giving a second way by which gases of decomposition are sure to enter.

The brass pan journal passes through the receiver shell, leaving generally at the point of entrance a third passage for foul air.

The joint between the receiver and trap is made in the usual Pan closet job, with putty alone. This joint naturally cracks in time through shrinkage, settling or jarring, leaving a fourth passage for dangerous emanations.

The shell of the receiver is usually cast very thin, and the castings are seldom airtight before painting or enameling. After several years' use, it is liable to become perforated with an indefinite number of small holes, which give X additional chances for the entrance of impurities.

The bowl and its connection with the receiver are not strong enough to form a support for the closet seat, and therefore this woodwork requires an independent frame for its support, in violation of our rule in this regard.

(d) In setting the Pan closet the receiver is screwed into the floor over a flange made in the leaden trap, putty and paint being used for the joint. The trap has to be placed between the floor beams, and its connection with the soil must be made in a contracted space. The proper adjustment of the various parts of the closet and its connection with the cistern valve is more difficult, and requires more time on the part of the plumber than is necessary for the best sanitary water closets.

The Cost of manufacture evidently depends upon the number, material and complexity of the parts, and the manner of putting them together. The Pan closet consists of nineteen different parts, not including bolts and nuts, or fifty-one pieces including them. A perfect closet can be made of a single piece.

To make these Pan closets with all their parts so that they shall yield a profit to the manufacturer, to the dealer, and to the plumber, when sold at the low price to which competition has reduced them, is only possible by reducing the weight and the quality of the materials and workmanship to the minimum. They are therefore usually of the most flimsy character.

The Appearance. - The beauty of the Pan closet is not so great as to tempt the owner to omit the casing, and in fact the casing never is omitted, though a device so dangerous should always be exposed to full view in order that such defects as occur on the exterior may be discovered as soon as possible. But the outside machinery collects dust in every crevice which cannot be removed, and this has given rise in the French Pan closets to the custom of inclosing all the working parts within the body of the receiver, swelling it to an abnormal size for the purpose. Here it soon corrodes and becomes coated with filth like the rest of the interior in a very short time.

In short, it is impossible to conceive of a device more ingeniously contrived than the Pan closet to embrace in a single feature as many hygienic vices; and, under the outward effect of security, as many real dangers.

Sanitary Engineers.

Not very long ago I passed a small plumber's shop having a large show window. There was room enough in this window to display a handsome and instructive system of sanitary appliances, arranged in such a manner as to inspire the beholder with a sense of the wisdom and skill of the proprietor. The exhibit in this window, however, consisted of three huge pan water-closets in a row, extending from one side of the window to the other, with a few antiquated basin faucets, plugs and chains lying on the floor at their feet. The sign above read, "Sanitary Engineer."

We deplore the ignorance of the public in insisting upon having such unsanitary fixtures; but how can we expect anything better of them, so long as professors of hygiene themselves thus recommend them with triple emphasis and to the total exclusion of what is really good?

X. Y. Z.,

BUILDER, PLUMBER, PAINTER, GLAZIER, CARPENTER, RANGE AND STOVE MAKER, HOT WATER ENGINEER, Pump Maker and Sanitary Engineer. Water-Closets Fixed on the Newest Principles.

WRITING, GRAINING, MARBLING. FOUNTAINS ERECTED.

UNDERTAKER.

Mr. Hellyer, in his "Sanitary Plumbing," gives us a copy of a plumber's sign in London, quite similar in effect to the one just described, for you see this man also called himself a "sanitary engineer," in spite of the fact that he had placed a pan closet and a D trap on one side of his business card and a combined water-closet tank and drinking water cistern on the other.

In preparing this sign for our purpose I added the word "undertaker," knowing that one who claimed so much with so little equipment would be likely to have to bury his employers as his final act of service in their behalf.

As Mr. Hellyer wisely says, such signboards should rather be taken as "warning boards," in order that he who read-eth may run away.