Preface 3

AN EXPERIENCE of many years in the various branches of plumbing practice has brought home to the author the real need for a work on plumbing plans and specifications which will point out to those having the designing of plumbing systems; how to indicate materials and fixtures on plans; how to prepare full and complete working plans and details; how to write a satisfactory specification, and last, but not least, just what plumbing work is required in different classes of buildings. "Plumbing Plans and Specifications" is the result of that experience.

The book is divided into four parts. The first part is devoted to a presentation of symbols which it is urged to adopt. This is more important than it may seem. If ten different plans, from as many different offices, be examined, the chances are that in no two of them will the symbols be alike. Further, plans prepared in the same office at different times, or by different draughtsmen at the same time, often have unlike symbols. That is rather confusing to those who must interpret the plans, and in the interest of simplicity and uniformity some standards should be adopted.

Part two explains how to prepare plumbing plans and make up detail drawings of plumbing work. It is the combining of the symbols into a complete intelligible whole, just as letters are formed into words, words into sentences and sentences into paragraphs.

The third part takes up the matter of specifications, and as nothing is so good as a concrete example for explaining a point, a full working specification is reproduced, which can be used as a form, and modified or altered to suit all cases. Following the specification are some explanatory notes and helpful suggestions for those who have the writing to do. After pointing out how to write specifications, the various clauses and conditions are analyzed, to show their real significance and meaning.

Even though an architect understands how to draw plumbing plans, he is often at a loss to know what nature of plumbing work is necessary from an architectural standpoint for various classes of buildings. In order that this information will be available in the future, part four discusses the requirements for buildings of various types and shows examples of each class of building.

This book is supplemental to "Principles and Practice of Plumbing," which explains how work should be done. "Plumbing Plans and Specifications" explains how to indicate the work on plans and describes it in specifications. It is obvious, however, that nobody can properly plan work or write an intelligent specification without first knowing how the work should be performed.

J. J. COSGROVE Philadelphia, Pa., June 15, 1910.