Many of the larger cities have found that as the crowded conditions of the tenement-house districts increase, special provisions must be made to meet these conditions in such a manner that the sanitary standard of these dwelling places may be kept as high as possible. Other conditions besides that of being crowded, such as the unclean-liness and ignorance of many of the inmates of these districts, make special provisions a necessity. The following requirements with others of similar nature, are therefore now demanded by many of our large cities in their plumbing ordinances.

In all such houses, and in factories and workshops as well, there should be installed at least one water closet, regardless of the small number of occupants, and there should be enough additional water closets to allow at least one such fixture for each 15 persons.

In tenement and lodging houses there should be not less than one water closet on each floor, and whenever more than one family occupies a single floor, there should be at least one additional water closet for each two additional families. In such buildings whenever there are more than 15 persons living on the same floor, there should be an additional water closet installed on that floor for every 15 additional persons, or fractional part of that number. The water-closet compartments of tenement and lodging houses, factories and workshops should be made waterproof, with marble, slate, or tile. In tenement houses, when the water closet is used by a single family only, its base must be not less than 6 in. high, and in all other cases, where it is required, it should be as high as the seat.

Water closet and urinal apartments of tenement and lodging houses should in all cases be provided with a window opening into the outer air, or into a ventilating shaft not less than 10 sq. ft. in area. The partitions separating the toilet from the rest of the floor space should either extend to the ceiling, or the apartment be sealed over. These partitions should be made air-tight, and the outside partition be made to include a window opening into the outer air, into a ventilating shaft or into such a lighted area as may be approved by the proper officials. The interior partitions of such toilet apartment should be dwarfed partitions. The general water-closet accommodations for a tenement or lodging house should not be allowed to be installed in any cellar, and all such fixtures should be open, and free from any inclosing woodwork. Sinks of these houses should also be entirely open, and supported on iron legs or brackets, without inclosing woodwork of any description.

If the water pressure is not sufficient to fill the house tank of such buildings as tenement and lodging houses, factories and workshops, power pumps should be provided. Cesspools should never be permitted in the case of tenement and lodging houses, and the yards, areas, and courts of such buildings should be properly drained into the sewer.