Floor connections, although often receiving scant attention, are an important feature in obtaining sanitary conditions. Several forms of this connection are shown in Plate 17. Fig. H shows the simplest and probably most common connection, and at the same time most unsatisfactory and unsanitary.

This method consists in flanging the lead bend over onto the floor, filling the groove around the outlet of the closet bowl with a ring of putty, and screwing the bowl to the floor. The putty compresses and forms the joint.

In the event of pressure against the fixture, shrinking or rotting of the floor, this joint will break and allow a leakage of gas into the house. In addition, the oil in the putty often spreads and discolors the flooring around the fixture.

A much better form of connection is to be found in Fig. G. Here the lead bend is brought up through a brass flange, and soldered to the latter, as shown. A rubber gasket is placed between the flange and the base of the water closet, and the whole fastened together and made tight by means of brass bolts. This makes a connection which should never leak, even though there be shrinkage or settling of the floor on which the fixture rests.

Fig. E shows a patented form of floor connection which also makes a good joint. The base of the closet is recessed to receive a brass-screw connection, it being made firmly to the crockery by cement and lead.

A female brass-screw connection is soldered inside the top part of the lead bend, and the closet screwed down into it. The joint formed between the brass and the crockery makes the former practically an integral part of the closet.

Fig. F shows a floor connection for use in connection with wrought-iron soil pipe, such as is used for the Durham system.

A brass floor plate or flange is screwed into the end of the ell or other waste fitting in use, and a tight joint made by using a rubber gasket between the flange and the base of the water closet, the latter being screwed to the floor.