Within a comparatively short time, a large number of especially efficient waste and vent fittings have appeared, which have great merit and have done much toward simplifying and improving waste and vent connections. In these days when the tendency is toward complication, anything which will simplify the plumbing system is to be encouraged.

The author, personally, is inclined to date these improvements from the introduction of continuous venting, believing this system to be the indirect cause of many of these improvements. The fittings referred to present three most excellent features - they make it possible to gain a separate entrance into the drainage system for each fixture; they allow the use of the continuous vent principle, and they greatly reduce the number of joints, the latter feature being of itself a great gain to the plumbing system. Scattered at various points throughout this work these fittings may be found, but there are others which it will be of benefit to-consider in this chapter.

Fig. 174.   A Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

Fig. 174. - A Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

Fig. 175.   Use of Vented Cross.

Fig. 175. - Use of Vented Cross.

In Fig. 174, for instance, is shown a fitting which illustrates the advantages to be gained from modern fittings. In this one waste fitting there is opportunity for the waste connection of water-closet and bath, and vent connection for each. The vent fitting of Fig. 174 not only does a large amount of venting with few joints and small amount of labor, but also provides a waste entrance for the lavatory.

Fig. 176.   Fittings for Use in Installing Double Set of Fixtures.

Fig. 176. - Fittings for Use in Installing Double Set of Fixtures.

Fig. 177.   Special Fitting for Double Line of Water Closets.

Fig. 177. - Special Fitting for Double Line of Water-Closets.

These same advantages appear also in the fittings of Fig. 175. This waste fitting, by the way, may be used for two lavatories or two bath tubs. Fig. 176 also shows a number of fittings whose use is valuable when two sets of fixtures are called for back to back, for instance, where two bath rooms on the same floor are on opposite sides of the partition.

The fitting shown in Fig. 177 also does its work, both waste and vent, with few joints, and enables the work to be installed compactly and to the best possible advantage. Figs. 178 and 179 show fittings similar in character to those of Fig. 174, but of somewhat different design, to meet different conditions.

Fig. 178.   A Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

Fig. 178. - A Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

The additional vent hub on the waste fitting of Fig. 179 is for receiving the foot of the main vent stack. The fittings shown in these several illustrations are only a very few of the endless number of such fittings now on the market. Each one of them may be obtained with various modifications in design, until there is hardly a plumbing condition that is not perfectly covered by some one or more of these special fittings.

Fig. 179.   Another Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

Fig. 179. - Another Modern Vented Waste Fitting.

Fig. 180.   A Modern Type of Cast Iron Water Closet Bend.

Fig. 180. - A Modern Type of Cast-Iron Water-Closet Bend.

Fig. 181.   Another Modern Type of Cast iron Water Closet Bend.

Fig. 181. - Another Modern Type of Cast-iron Water-Closet Bend.

Fig. 182.   A Waste Fitting for Water Closets Set in a Group at the

Fig. 182. - A Waste Fitting for Water-Closets Set in a Group at the.

Center of the Toilet Room.

There is another class of fittings which have appeared only within a comparatively short time, which also are excellent in their way. We refer to the various cast-iron closet bends with their various handy features. In Figs. 180 and 181 two types of these fittings are shown. There are various other fittings of similar character, each one of them capable of being cast in a number of different modified forms, so that this class of fitting also, is capable of handling a great variety of working conditions. An especially clever fitting is to be seen in Fig. 182. This fitting is for use when a group of water-closets is to be installed in the center of the toilet room, away from any wall or partition. When it is considered what an amount of work, joints and fittings it would require to serve eight water-closets if put in under these conditions with ordinary fittings, the value of this fitting is seen. In . fact, the work could not often be done if common fittings were to be used.

It is true also of many of the other special fittings, that by means of them work can sometimes be installed which could not possibly be installed with common fittings.

The description and illustration of these fittings give but a faint conception of the great number that are to be found on the market, but they will serve to show what great advantages come from their use, as indicated earlier in this chapter, and to indicate also the great saving in labor that they effect.