While the great majority of range-boiler connections are simple and straightforward, there are numerous instances, constantly arising in the experience of the plumber, which call for much ingenuity on his part, as well as a practical and theoretical knowledge of the subject of circulation.
These complex conditions in range boiler work, arise from the varied locations of range and boiler, relative to each other; from the unique requirements that the supply system must fulfill; from the use of more than one boiler; from the use of more than one source of heat; from the requirement that heat by radiation must be obtained from the hot-water supply system, and from numerous other causes. The successful solution of these complex connections that are continually being met by the plumber, present a field of work in which he can display his ignorance of anything out of the ordinary line of work, or in which, if able, he may display a knowledge of the principles of circulation which will gain for him the respect and confidence of his customers. In this chapter some of the problems in range connections, which are continually requiring solution, will be taken up. It should be stated, however, that the problems considered are really few in number as compared to the great variety of such problems which might be considered if space could be devoted to the subject.
Those which are considered, however, are of importance, and a thorough understanding of them will go far in helping to solve other problems in circulation. One of the more simple, but yet important connections, is that shown in Fig. 295, the use of which is to produce a quick supply of hot water. By means of the ordinary connection of the flow pipe, which enters the side of the boiler, hot water is stored in the boiler and from there delivered to the fixtures. When the fire is first built in the range, however, considerable time must elapse before the hot water delivered to the boiler can store itself in sufficient quantity to be of any service. Before hot water can be delivered to the fixtures from the boiler, the hot water entering the latter must heat up a large body of cold water standing in it. By means of the connection shown in Fig. 295, however, hot water can be delivered directly into the flow pipe from the boiler in a very short time after the range fire has been started. Not only is this advantage gained, but hot water will store itself in the boiler almost as readily when this connection is in use as when the side connection is made. As the water in the flow pipe cools slightly, it must inevitably fall back into the boiler to make room for the hotter water that is being constantly delivered to the flow pipe. It is in this way that storage of hot water goes on.
Fig. 295. - Quick-Heating Range Connection.
Under many conditions this form of connection is of special advantage. For instance, in many homes, the kitchen range fire is allowed to go out each night, and when it is rekindled the following morning, hot water will be required as quickly as possible to provide it at the kichen sink. It can be readily seen that in this case the quick heating connection will give far more satisfactory service than the side connection into the boiler.
Fig. 296 will show that this same connection can be provided for the horizontal boiler equally as well as for the vertical boiler. A modification of the quick heating connection is often used, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 295. This form of connection consists in running the flow pipe from the range, up and into the flow pipe from the boiler, and taking a branch from this line into the side of the boiler. This plan can be used to advantage, as it gives a quick supply of hot water, and storage is made through each connection. Another means of obtaining a quick supply of hot water is by the use of a gas heater, as shown in Fig. 297. Gas heaters are made in a great variety of styles, and by many manufacturers, and are used extensively, and to advantage. Many houses, apartment buildings, etc., are now being built with the kitchen heated by the house-heating system, and therefore requiring no coal range for heating purposes, the cooking being done on a gas range. Under these circumstances, the use of an auxiliary heater is of great advantage. It is usually provided with a quick-heating connection, as shown in the illustration, from which hot water can be quickly obtained, without heating up the entire body of water in the boiler. Under almost any circumstances, the auxiliary gas heater may be used to advantage in the summer season, when it is undesirable to heat up the rooms of the house by running the kitchen range. The gas heater should be connected to the kitchen chimney by means of a 3-inch smoke pipe. Instantaneous gas heaters may be used to advantage in bath rooms, without the use of a boiler for storage purposes. As their name implies, some makes of these heaters will produce a supply of hot water almost instantaneously, making them very convenient for bath and lavatory purposes under various conditions.
Fig. 296. - Quick-Heating Range Connection for Horizontal Boiler.
Fig. 297. - Connections for Auxiliary Gas Heater.
Fig. 298. - Range Boiler Heated by Kitchen Range and Auxiliary Heater.
In Fig. 298 is shown another very common scheme of connections, in which the gas heater is connected to deliver hot water quickly, and the kitchen range connected in the ordinary manner, the latter being depended on to produce a storage of hot water in the boiler. The cold-water connection to the gas heater is taken out of the return to the range. This combination of connections may also be used to advantage when the auxiliary gas heater and the gas range instead of the coal range are used. The gas range may be provided with a water front, and connected to the range boiler with as satisfactory results as the regular kitchen range. It is often required to connect a range boiler and range when the two are on opposite sides of a door. The correct method of performing the work is to be seen in Fig. 299. It is obvious that to connect the flow pipe from the range into the side of the boiler in the ordinary manner, would be an impossibility, as it would have to pass across the doorway. Noting this fact, the uninformed workman will sometimes attempt to solve the difficulty by carrying the flow pipe down and under the floor, and then vertically into the side of the boiler, as in Fig. 300. This is clearly wrong. A trap is formed, and in order to carry hot water through it, it must be forced, for it will never circulate in the natural way. The correct method of Fig. 299 will avoid such difficulties, and will perform the required work in a proper manner. It will be observed that the proper solution of this problem is nothing more nor less than the use of a quick beating connection, fully described above. Another very similar problem is that in which the range and boiler are in adjoining rooms. The same means are employed in making proper connections, as will appear from Fig. 301.
Fig. 299. - Boiler Heated by Range with Door Between. Correct Method.
Fig. 300. - Boiler Heated by Range with Door Between. Wrong Method.
Fig. 301. - Boiler Heated by Range in Adjoining Room.