The connection of the range boiler to a range on the floor below it, is a connection often called for, such a connection being shown in Fig. 302, from which it will be seen that no different principle is involved than in the work on an ordinary range connection. The location of the range boiler on the floor above the range often comes from the use of the former to heat a bath room, which it can usually do very successfully. When the bath room is located adjacent to the kitchen, and on the same floor as the boiler, the latter may often be located in the bath room, and its heat used as a means of heating the room. These conditions often exist in flat houses.
One of the most common range-connection problems is that of heating a boiler from two ranges, one being on the same floor as the boiler, and the other on the floor below. The problem often appears also, where a laundry stove in the basement is to be utilized, or a coil in the furnace required to give additional heat to the boiler. Connections under these conditions should generally be made in such a manner that the boiler may not only be heated from both sources of heat, but also by either source alone. There are several methods by means of which this work may be successfully performed, four of which are shown in Figs. 303, 304. 305, and 306. It is well to state in this connection that on such problems as this one the use of valves to control the heating from the two sources of heat is not in general a wise course, as they must necessarily be controlled by people not familiar with such matters, and the wrong use of valves sometimes leads to disastrous results. While either of the four methods mentioned will accomplish the desired results, it is natural that there should be a preference in selecting the method to be used. Method No. 1, shown in Fig. 303, is perhaps the most natural and simplest, and therefore the method most commonly employed. It is true, however, that this method is not considered the most satisfactory. In the No. 1 connection the flow pipe from the upper range is connected into that from the lower range, and there is danger that the flow of hot water from the lower range will in a measure obstruct the free passage of hot water from the upper range. If the water issuing from the lower range happens to be heated to a higher degree than that from the upper one this trouble is increased, the result of such conditions not only being seen in decreased efficiency, but it is also liable to result in hammering, which is always a disagreeable feature. Method No. 2, Fig. 304, avoids the difficulty found in No. 1, the two circuits being entirely separate. The only arguments against No. 2 are that in order to use it a boiler must be used which is not commonly to be found, and that a somewhat greater amount of pipe is required, although the latter objection is comparatively insignificant.
Fig. 302. - Range Boiler Heated by Range on Floor Below.
Fig. 303. - Range Boiler Heated by Two Ranges on Different Floors.
Method No. 1.
The system shown in Fig. 305, method No. 3, is probably the most satisfactory of the four systems shown. This method provides a direct line of circulation, with no obstructions, and with the least possible amount of pipe, the latter feature having the advantage of presenting the least amount of surface to cool the hot water in its passage to the boiler. When either range is not in operation there is nothing to prevent the heating of the boiler by the other. Method No. 4, Fig. 306, is also to be considered a very effective one, and is in many cases preferable even to No. 3. According to this method, the connection from one of the ranges should be a quick-heating connection. Either one of the ranges may be thus connected, according to circumstances.
Fig. 304. - Range Boiler Heated by Two Ranges on Different Floors.
Method No. 2.
Fig. 305. - Range Boiler Heated by Two Ranges on Different Floors.
Method No. 3.
Another problem, one with which the average plumber is generally unacquainted, consists in heating a range boiler on the floor below that on which the range is located. In considering this problem, it may be stated at the outset that the conditions are entirely unnatural, for it means that hot water must flow downward from the range to the boiler, whereas the natural course is an opposite one. As a consequence, the heating of a boiler under these conditions must not be expected to be accomplished with anything like the same degree of efficiency that is to be obtained under natural conditions.
Fig. 306. - Range Boiler Heated by Two Ranges on Different Floors.
Method No. 4.
To obtain any results whatever; it is necessary on such work as this to run the flow pipe vertically above the range, usually to the ceiling, from which point it is then carried down to the top of the boiler and connected, as appears in Fig. 307. If the flow pipe can be run higher than to the ceiling - to the ceiling of the next floor above, for instance - the results obtained will be so much the better.
Fig. 307. - Heating of Range Boiler on Floor Below Range.
In carrying the flow pipe vertically through the greater distance, it is given more opportunity to cool, and therefore falls to the boiler more readily. A difference in temperature is necessary in all circulation work. The greater vertical rise of the flow pipe also gives a greater weight of water, which is essential in systems of this nature. By means of the method shown in Fig 307, a storage of hot water can usually be obtained, sufficient in amount if the demands upon the boiler are not too great. The chief difficulty in connection with the proper solution of this problem is the collection of air at the top of the loop. Unless provision is made to relieve this air, it will very quickly make the system inoperative.
Fig. 308. - Boiler Heated by Range on Same Floor and Range on Floor Above.
If there are fixtures on the floor above the range, the remedy is easily applied by taking a supply pipe from the top of the loop to some fixture that is in common use, as, for instance, a bath-room lavatory. If the system is under tank pressure, of course the expansion pipe from this high point will do the work. If, however, the system is under direct pressure, and there are no third-floor plumbing fixtures, the relief of the high point cannot be accomplished in a satisfactory manner. The only thing that can be done under these circumstances is to place a pet cock at the high point, by means of which the air may be relieved when necessary by opening it by hand. Since this method is not automatic, it is open to strong objection, and the only way in which it may reach any degree of satisfaction is to see to it that some one opens the valve at frequent stated intervals. A drip pipe to the sink should be run from the pet cock. Another way in which this problem sometimes presents itself is to be seen in Fig. 308, where not only a range above the boiler, but also a range on the same floor as the boiler is to be used. This problem is not so common as the previous one, but sometimes occurs when the boiler must for some reason be located in the basement, and it is required to heat it from the laundry stove in the basement and the kitchen range on the first floor. The best feature about these circumstances is that when the greatest amount of water is required: - that is, for washing purposes - the laundry stove, which is connected in the ordinary manner, will be in operation, and will usually be able to provide amply, whereas it would be difficult often to get a sufficiently abundant supply from the upper range. The work shown in Fig. 308 does not bring in any features different from those encountered in the preceding problem.