In "Modern Plumbing Illustrated," by the author, the subjects of flushing valves and automatic flushing are illustrated and considered exhaustively.

The use of lines of refrigerators in large buildings, especially in apartment buildings, is a matter which may properly receive attention in this chapter.

Fig. 214.   Plumbing for Horse Stall.

Fig. 214. - Plumbing for Horse Stall.

In the chapter on residence plumbing, the connections for a single refrigerator are shown, but when a line of two or more refrigerators is to be connected with the drainage system, the method shown in Fig. 213 is generally adopted. The drip sink for such a line is usually set in the cellar, and should be trapped and vented in the same manner as any kitchen sink.

Fig. 215.   Plumbing for Two or More Horse Stalls.

Fig. 215. - Plumbing for Two or More Horse Stalls.

In addition to public buildings, such as schools, hotels, factories, etc., even stables now receive careful attention as to their sanitary arrangements, with the result that their sanitary conditions have in recent years been greatly improved. Although liable to be somewhat overlooked, the plumbing of the stable should be as carefully attended to as that of the residence, for in our cities the stables of private residences and of business houses, public stables, engine-house stables, etc., are located largely in populous districts, where they may easily become public nuisances.

Fig. 216.   A Special Stall Drainage Sink.

Fig. 216. - A Special Stall Drainage Sink.

Naturally the most important feature in this line of work is the drainage arrangements for the horse stall, the most approved method of performing this work being shown for a single stall in Fig. 214, and for two stalls in Fig. 215.

The stall sink is shown in detail in Fig. 216, and is of cast iron, with a 2-inch outlet. The location of this drainage sink in the stall is shown in Fig. 217. For box stalls a similarly constructed square sink is used, a plan of which is given in Fig. 218.

The connections for the two stall sinks of Fig. 215 are preferable to the connections of Fig. 214. In the first place, while the outlet of the sink in Fig. 214 is connected directly into the trap, thus depriving the trap of its cleanouts, the connections as made in Fig. 215 will allow the use of two cleanouts on the trap and a third cleanout in the end of the horizontal line of waste. In order to allow two trap cleanouts to be used, the vent is connected to a tee placed next to the trap.

Fig. 217.   Plan of Horse Stall, Showing Sink.

Fig. 217. - Plan of Horse Stall, Showing Sink.

It is not desirable to allow one trap to serve more than two stalls, for the reason that under such conditions a long line of foul waste pipe will throw its odors out into the stable through the different stall outlets.

Floor drainage is another important feature in the plumbing of stables.

In another chapter will be found the subject of floor and yard drains. Such drains would be required in the carriage wash room, in the harness wash room, in the stable, etc. In Fig. 219 is shown an excellent form of construction for such drains. It is known as the F. D. C. drain. The drain is of the ordinary bell cesspool type, but cast with a broad flange, 30 inches in diameter. The drain is set in hot asphalt, which appears in Fig. 219 as the dotted section surrounding the cesspool and flange. The asphalt is waterproof, and its use does away entirely with leakage down the waste pipe, a nuisance often encountered in this work. In Fig. 220 are shown the connections for a horse trough, another necessary feature in stable plumbing. The horse trough should be provided with a standing overflow, in order to prevent the overflow of water onto the stable floor.

Fig. 218.   Plan of Box Stall, Showing Sink.

Fig. 218. - Plan of Box Stall, Showing Sink.

Fig. 219.   Watertight Drain.

Fig. 219. - Watertight Drain.

Fig. 220.   Connections for the Horse Trough.

Fig. 220. - Connections for the Horse Trough.

In Fig. 221, the several connections of stable fixtures which have already been shown in detail, are assembled in one illustration, which shows the plumbing for a stable occupying two floors. In large city stables several floors are often used.

In addition to the fixtures and connections shown, most well-equipped stables are provided with toilet arrangements, with bath and toilet for hostlers, etc.

Whenever such plumbing is installed in a stable, it should be put in under the same restrictions and regulations as if the same work were to be installed in a residence.

Fig. 221.   The Plumbing of a Stable.

Fig. 221. - The Plumbing of a Stable.