Before leaving the subject of "roughing-in," the matter of fixture wastes should be considered, as the concealed work on the fixture wastes is constructed during the "roughing in." It will therefore be appropriate to insert at this point the following table of sizes of fixture wastes:

Size of Waste.

Fixture.

Inches.

Water-closet....................

4

Slop sink......................

3

Pedestal urinal..................

3

Floor and yard drains.............

3

Horse stall.....................

2

Urinal trough....................

2

Laundry tubs (3 to 6 parts).........

2

Laundry tubs ( 1 to 3 parts).........

1 1/2

Kitchen sink....................

1 1/2 or 2

Pantry sink.....................

1 1/2

Bath tub.......................

1 1/2

Sitz bath.......................

1 1/2

Foot bath.......................

1 1/2

Shower bath.....................

1 1/2

Safe wastes......................

1 1/2

Lavatory........................

1 1/4

Group of levatories (2 or 3).........

1 1/2

Drinking fountain.................

1 1/4

Refrigerator.....................

1 1/4

The cellar piping is a most important matter of "roughing-in." There are two common methods of running this piping, the most common being that of Fig. 102, in which the pipe is concealed underground. The other method is to run it exposed, in which case it is generally carried on the cellar timbers. The latter method (Fig. 103) is the preferable one, and when so run support should be given it according to the method of Fig. 104, but never according to Fig. 105. An important feature in installing cellar piping is to insure making all cleanouts readily accessible. Such provision is to be noted in both Fig. 102 and Fig. 103. Many times the piping cannot be run so that it is practicable to support it from the cellar timbers because of its distance from them. In that case the piping should be supported on brick or stone piers, as in Figs. 106 and 107, especially under vertical stacks. When the piping.

Fig. 102.   Good Method of Running House Drain Underground.

Fig. 102. - Good Method of Running House Drain Underground.

Fig. 103.   Line of House Drain Run Overhead.

Fig. 103. - Line of House Drain Run Overhead.

is run horizontally through finished rooms and exposed to view the neatest method of supporting it is by means of special pipe-supporting fittings, as in Fig. 108.

The supporting of vertical lines of pipe is shown in Fig. 109. The best-method consists of the use of wrought-iron bands or clamps at each floor.

Having completed the consideration of the general subject of soil piping, it will be of advantage to many of the readers of this work to devote some space to certain features pertaining to the practical construction of soil-pipe work, taking up first the operation of calking a lead joint.

Fig. 104.   The Use of Hangers in Supporting Horizontal Pipe.

Fig. 104. - The Use of Hangers in Supporting Horizontal Pipe.

In general, this joint is made by first tamping oakum into the hub of the soil pipe, then in pouring molten lead into the hub, after which it is calked. To many a plumber the simple act of putting in the oakum, tamping it down a little, and then pouring on top of this a little molten lead seems to constitute the whole subject of making a calked joint. There is much more than this to be considered, however, if a successful piece of work is to be done. It is a fact that in many tests applied to the "roughing-in" almost as much time is consumed in repairing defects in the soil piping which the test brings to light as was consumed in the construction of the work. Much of such trouble comes from imperfectly calked soil-pipe joints. In making a calked joint the oakum should never be dropped in loosely, as is often done. It should first be formed into a tight roll a little larger than the width of the joint to be made. The plumber usually gets his oakum into the right condition by rolling it on his knee. The oakum is then forced into the hub with a yarning iron and firmly calked with a regular calking tool, so that a good foundation is made for the lead. In fact, if the oakum is properly calked, it should be nearly water tight before the lead is poured. The oakum should fill the hub to within about an inch of the top. It is a mistake to use a great depth of lead, for the reason that while the effect of the calking might be felt at any depth, the really beneficial expansion of the lead is felt only through a comparatively small depth. If the lead is over an inch in depth, it does not feel the effect of the blow on the calking tool sufficiently to cause it to expand properly. As a consequence, the additional metal is of no real value, merely filling space which the oakum might fill at less expense. The lead should not be poured until the metal is hot. The same care does not have to be given to the melting of lead that is needed in melting solder, for the reason that it contains no tin that may be burned up. It is well to heat the lead close to a cherry red. This heat insures the successful running of the metal, without the necessity of repouring. The lead should fill the hub. The lead is now ready to be calked, and before finishing this operation it is a good plan to thoroughly calk the outer and inner circumferences of the lead, this course insuring an expansion against the sides of the pipe, which are the points where defects are most likely to appear. Calking tools may be ground specially for calking each of these circumferences. When a joint calked as described is finished the hub will be full, whereas if the oakum had been dropped in or loosely calked, the lead, when calked, would have settled down below the top of the hub, necessitating a second pouring many times. When the lead is poured it should be seen that no small fiber of oakum is left reaching up to the top of the hub, as this often is the cause of a leaky joint, the water finding its way along the fiber through the lead.

Fig. 105.   Poor Practice   Use of Pipe Hooks in Supporting Horizontal Pipe.

Fig. 105. - Poor Practice - Use of Pipe Hooks in Supporting Horizontal Pipe.

Fig. 106.   Horizontal Line of Pipe Supported by Pier

Fig. 106. - Horizontal Line of Pipe Supported by Pier.

Fig. 107.   Vertical Line of Pipe Supported by Pier.

Fig. 107. - Vertical Line of Pipe Supported by Pier.

Fig. 108.   Horizontal Line of Pipe Supported by Pipe Supporting Fittings.

Fig. 108. - Horizontal Line of Pipe Supported by Pipe-Supporting Fittings.