Fashions in long-case clock dials do not appear to have obtained until about 1670. Fig. 389 is a Fromanteel dial of about 1660-5, and is, perhaps, the very earliest type which was made. The clock, being one-handed, - having no minute-hand motion-work, - has the hour circle divided into quarters on its inside edge, with no minute divisions on the outside. The spandrels of the dial are without any ornamentation, and the hand is a development from the simple spade-form of the earlier lantern-clock. See p. 341 for illustrations of lantern-clock hands. The clock is a thirty-hour - a train of three - but with a key-winding action and a striking train. Fig. 390 shows the clock case itself, of simple panelled form, ebony veneered on oak, with the capitals and bases of the columns, on either side of the hood, silvered. As a comparison Fig. 391 shows the late single-handed dial of a thirty-hour clock of about 1740-50, which has, in many respects, the appearance of an early example. With these late degenerate types, however, the details are a mere jumble, and the latest characteristics establish the date. Thus in this specimen the pierced hand is of the 1730-40 pattern, if we disregard the projecting tail on the other side of the collet, and the brass spandrel-corners are oven later. The clock has no visible winding-holes, and is, therefore, wound by pulling up the weights by cords or chains, in the old lantern-clock style; an infallible sign, in a long-case clock, of a degenerate type. It is a depraved example, and is only illustrated here to show the differences between an early clock and one of later date but apparently early character. It is hardly necessary to point out that these clocks are worthless to the collector.

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Fig. 401. - Figs. 401 and 402. Dan Quare, London. - Month Striking Clock. 2 bells. - Striking on the Roman numeral system as in Figs. 399 and 406. - 12-in. dial. - Date about 1695-1700. - James Stuttard, Esq.

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Fig. 402.

An early dial, which is quite typical of its period is illustrated in Fig. 392. The spandrel corners are engraved - a fashion which preceded that of the separately attached brass corner-pieces - and the hour circle is narrow, the numerals squat, and the minute divisions are on the extreme outer edge of the circle. This latter detail is an almost infallible indication of an early clock. The hour-hand is finely pierced and carved, the dial centre beautifully "matted," and the exact attention bestowed, by the leading makers, on apparently trifling details is shown by the fact that the two hands just reach their relative devisions on the circle, the quarters on the inside and the minutes on the outside, without trenching a fraction of an inch beyond. The clock is an eight-day striker, and the dial has the simple refined character which is inseparable from a fine early specimen. Edward East was a noted maker, the Court Horologist to Charles II.

Back Plate Of Movement.

Fig. 403. Back Plate Of Movement.

Dial Of Clock.

Fig. 404. Dial Of Clock.

Side View Of Movement.

Fig. 405 Side View Of Movement.

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Fig. 406. - Figs. 403 to 406. Joseph Knibb, London. - 8-day Ebony Bracket Clock. Striking on 2 bells in the Roman numeral fashion. Date about 1695. - Richard Arnold, Esq.

The next example, Fig. 393, illustrates the next development, the provision of a subsidiary dial to mark the swings of the pendulum, or, in the case of a pendulum of seconds length - 39.1393 ins. - the seconds themselves. In this clock the pendulum is of 1 1/4 seconds length - 61-155 ins - and the subsidiary dial, although numbered from 1 to 60, has only four divisions between each numbering of 5, 10, 15 and so on. The engraved corners, as in the East dial, are here replaced by brass-winged cherub heads, and in early clocks, by renowned makers, these corners will always be found finely chased, and frequently water-gilt. This clock is by William Clement, - the first maker who adopted the "anchor" escapement, - and the name is signed "Gulielmus Clement, Londini, Fecit," across the bottom of the dial, in the usual fashion of that date. I am indebted to Mr. Malcolm Webster for permission to use this photograph again, - it is illustrated in Fig. 84 of " English Domestic Clocks," - and also the four preceding examples in this chapter.

William Clement's dials are always characterised by quiet refinement of style. From Mr. Wetherfield's unique collection the next example is taken, in character very similar to Fig. 393. Both have the long 61-inch, 1 1/4 seconds length pendulum, the subsidiary dial having forty-eight divisions only. Fig. 394 differs from Fig. 393 in being a month movement, and possessing the maintaining-power of the kind known as the bolt-and-shutter. Some descriptive detail may be of service here. In the matter of duration between windings, we know that an eight-day clock, with a seconds pendulum, - i.e. 39. 1393 ins. in length, - has a train of four wheels from main to escape. Clock wheels are geared together by means of teeth and pinions, the former, on the periphery of the wheel, engaging with the latter, attached horizontally to its "arbor" or shaft. A wheel-motion, therefore, from left to right, communicates itself to the next in order, in the opposite direction. This is apparent to anyone acquainted with cog-and-pinion, or cog-to-cog gearing, and must be evident to the untechnical on a moment's thought. We see, therefore, that the seconds finger, which is attached directly to the arbor of the escape-wheel, must move with it, and in the same direction, and this motion must be from left to right. The next, or third wheel, therefore, moves from right to left, the next, the centre wheel, from left to right, and the last, or main wheel, from right to left again. To the arbor of this main wheel the winding square of the going train is attached, and in winding we merely reverse the going of the wheel, compensating for a fall of eight days of the gut line from which the weight depends, by some ten or twelve turns of the winding-key from left to right. Now with a month clock there is an additional wheel, between the centre and main wheels, to provide the extra gearing for the additional duration, and one wheel at one end of the train must have its motion reversed. We cannot reverse the escape wheel, as a seconds finger moving round its dial from right to left would look absurd, therefore it must be the main wheel which must have this reverse motion, and, in winding, the key must be turned from right to left, instead of the usual left to right as in the case of an eight-day clock with a seconds pendulum. This is a rough-and-ready method of detecting a month-clock, but this will not apply to a clock with a pendulum shorter than seconds length, as the going train may, and probably does, consist of a greater or lesser number of wheels than four, and the absence of a seconds dial and finger removes the objection to the escape-wheel having a reverse motion.

Joseph Knibb, London.

Fig. 407. Joseph Knibb, London. - Month Striking Clock with skeleton dial. 6 ft. 8 ins. high. 10-in. dial. - Date about 1685-95. - D. A. F. Wetherfield, Esq.

Joseph Knibb, London.

Fig. 408. Joseph Knibb, London. - 8-day, 2-bell Striking Bracket Clock, with skeleton, minute-numbered dial. - Date about 1685.