Oak Overdoor From Rotherwas, Hereford.

Fig. 307. Oak Overdoor From Rotherwas, Hereford. - Carved with the arms of Bodenham quartering Baskerville. Late sixteenth century. - C.J. Charles, Esq.

Tissington Hall, Derbyshire. Panelling In The Hall.

Fig. 308. Tissington Hall, Derbyshire. Panelling In The Hall. - Early seventeenth century.

Lyme Park, Cheshire.

Fig. 309. Lyme Park, Cheshire. - Panelling now in the drawing-room, formerly in the long gallery. - Early seventeenth century.

Capt. the Hon. Richard Legh.

Oak Pilasters.

Fig. 310. Oak Pilasters. - Removed from a house at Exeter. c. 1600. - Victoria and Albert Museum.

Oak Pilaster.

Fig. 311. Oak Pilaster. - From a house in Lime St., - City of London. Early seventeenth century.

C.1600. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Oak Pilasters And Panelling From A House At Exeter.

Fig. 312. Oak Pilasters And Panelling From A House At Exeter.

Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Fig. 313. Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Fig. 314. Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Fig. 315. Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Fig. 316. Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling.

Oak Panelled Room, Formerly In A House On The Old Quay, Yarmouth.

Fig. 317. Oak-Panelled Room, Formerly In A House On The Old Quay, Yarmouth. - Dated 1595. Lord Rochdale.

The Plaster Ceiling Of The Oak Panelled Room, FIG. 317.

Fig. 318. The Plaster Ceiling Of The Oak-Panelled Room, FIG. 317.

The Oak Panelled Room, Fig. 317. The Carved Panels Over The Mantel.

Fig. 319. The Oak-Panelled Room, Fig. 317. The Carved Panels Over The Mantel.

In the same way as with the staircase, the chimney-piece acquires a size and dignity towards the end of the sixteenth century, which it had not possessed, previously. The problem of the warming of churches in the fifteenth century, and earlier, does not appear to have been attempted at that period. These churches possess no fireplaces, nor any signs that such ever existed. Portable stoves were unknown, unless we except cressets or braziers, which, if used, must have been totally inadequate, and we can only assume that our fifteenth-century ancestors endured extremes of cold, in sacred edifices, to which we, at the present day, are totally unaccustomed. Even in early monastic refectories and large halls, fireplaces, where they exist, are nearly always of later date.

With timber houses, fireplaces and stacks of chimneys were the rule, but the usual fire opening was supported by a brick or stone arching, and an oak beam or bressomer. This constituted the domestic mantel up to the middle of the sixteenth century. These chimney-beams were often well carved, cambered to prevent sagging, and finished above with panelling either especially enriched, as in the example from Tolleshunt Major, benefactor to the Abbey and the Church in the closing years of the fifteenth century. The lintel illustrated here is shown in situ, in Fig. 269. It bears the initials T.P. in the central shield, and it is, therefore, original to the house.

The Oak Panelled Nelson Room, Formerly In The Star Hotel, Great Yarmouth.

Fig. 320. The Oak-Panelled "Nelson" Room, Formerly In The Star Hotel, Great Yarmouth. - 1595-1600. 20

Fig. 282, or matching that of the room as in Fig. 269. The early carpenters had a high opinion of the fire-resisting qualities of oak. These beams are seldom, if ever, protected from the direct action of the fire, and in those which have persisted to our day, beyond a mere surface charring, the timber has remained as sound as it was when it was worked. Four examples of these carved fireplace lintels are given in Figs. 294 to 297. The first is from a house in Market Street, Lavenham, of the late fifteenth century. Fig. 295, from Stoke-by-Nayland, is later, and is squared to rest upon the brick or stone jambs in the early-sixteenth-century manner. Fig. 296 is from Paycockes, Coggeshall, a house built about the year 1500 by Thomas Paycocke, a wealthy merchant and great

The Oak Panelled Room With Interior Porch, Fig. 320

Fig. 321. The Oak-Panelled Room With Interior Porch, Fig. 320 - 1595-1600

The Abbey of Coggeshall was founded by King Stephen, and was one of the thirteen houses of the order of Savigny, the whole of which joined the Cistercians in 1147. Opinions are divided as to who was the last abbot at the Dissolution in 1536. Some authorities give Henry More, whereas Morant states that William Love was the abbot at this date. Tolleshunt Major, or Beckingham, was a part of the Abbey property.

The Oak Panelled Room, Fig. 320.

Fig. 322. The Oak-Panelled Room, Fig. 320. - 1595-1600. 283