The method of constructing driven wells - that of driving a pipe into the earth to the water - bearing stratum of sand or gravel - requires a special end to prevent the pump tube from becoming stopped. In order that the fine material may not enter and fill the lower end of the tube, a sand-point is used, such as that shown in Fig. 128. It is made of perforated brass tubing and provided with a sharpened end to facilitate driving. The perforations act as a strainer that keeps out all but the fine particles which will pass the pump valves. Sand-points are made with strainers of various degrees of fineness to suit the different conditions of soils. These strainers may in the course of time become filled with particles of the soil that lodge in the perforations and the outside become so encrusted as to prevent the entrance of the water. In such case, the pipe must be pulled out of the ground and the point replaced by a new one. In Fig. 128 is shown a driven well with the sand-point in the water-bearing stratum. If the small particles of earth clog the strainer the pump will "work hard" and yield only a portion of the water the soil is capable of giving when the strainer is clear.