"His nose was high, his eyen bright citrin."

Chaucer: Knight's Tale.

CITRINE, or the colour of the Citron, is the first of the tertiary class of colours, or ultimate compounds of the primary triad, yellow, red, and blue; in which yellow is the archeus, or predominating colour, and blue the extreme subordinate; for citrine being an immediate compound of the secondaries, orange and green, of both which yellow is a constituent, the latter colour is of double occurrence therein, while the other two primaries enter singly into the composition of citrine, - its mean or middle hue comprehending eight blue, five red, and six yellow, of equal intensities.

Hence citrine, according to its name, which is the name of a class of colours, and is used commonly for a dark yellow, partakes in a subdued degree of all the powers of its archeus yellow; and, in estimating its properties and effects in painting, it is to be regarded as participating of all the relations of yellow. By some this colour is improperly called brown, as almost all broken colours are. The harmonizing contrast of citrine is a deep purple; and it is the most advancing of the tertiary colours, or nearest in its relation to light. It is variously of a tepid, tender, modest, cheering character, and alike expressive of these qualities in pictorial and poetic art. In nature, citrine begins to prevail in landscape before the other tertiaries, as the green of summer declines; and as autumn advances it tends toward its orange hues, including the colours called aurora, chamoise, and others before enumerated under the head of Yellow.

To understand and relish the harmonious relations and expressive powers of the tertiary colours, requires a cultivation of perception and a refinement of taste to which study and practice are requisite. They are at once less definite and less generally evident, but more delightful, - more frequent in nature, but rarer in common art, than the like relations of the secondaries and primaries; and hence the painter and the poet afford us fewer illustrations of effects less commonly appreciated or understood. To this a want of right distinctions, and, consequently, also of proper appellations, may have contributed; nevertheless, the tertiaries have not escaped the eye of the poet, though his allusions to them are mostly ambiguous, metonymous, or periphrastical, as in the following examples of citrine: -

In accordance with light and shade, etc.

"Unmuffle, ye faint stars, and thou, fair moon. That wout'st to love the traveller's benison; Stoop thy pale visage through an amber cloud. And disinherit Chaos, that reigns here In double night of darkness and of shades."

Milton.

"The grete Emetrius, the king of Inde, Upon a stede bay, trapped in stele, Covered with cloth of gold diapred wele, Came riding like the god of arms.

His crispe here like ringes was yronne, And that was yelwe, and glittered as the sonne; His nose was high; his eyen bright citrin; His lippes round; lib coloure was sanguin."

Chaucer: Knight's Tale, v. 2158.

"While sallow autumn fills thy lap with leaves."

Collins.

" Awake! the morning shines, and the fresh field Calls us; we lose the prime, to mark how spring Our tender plants, how blows the citron grove, What drops the myrrh, and what the balmy reed, - How Nature paints her colours, how the bee Sits on the bloom, extracting liquid sweets."

Milton.

"And on the tawny sands and shelves Trip the pert fairies and the dapper elves."

Contrasted, etc.

"No ivory work my halls infold, Nor arched ceilings gleaming gold;

Nor bear Hymrttian columns wrought. The citron brums from Afric brought; Nor high-born dames would I e'er see The Spartan purple weave for me."

Horace: Carm. iviii. lib. ii.

"The tawny lion panting to get free."

Milton.

" His tawny beard was th' equal grace Both of his wisdom and his face; The upper part thereof was whey. The nether, orange mix'd with grey"

Butler: Hudibras, Canto i.

Original citrine-coloured pigments are not numerous, unless we include several imperfect yellows, which might not improperly be called citrines: the following are, however, the pigments best entitled to this appellation: -

In accordance with light and shade, etc.

"Umnuffle, ye faint stars, and thou, fair moon. That wont'st to love the traveller's beuison; Stoop thy pale visage through an amber cloud. And disinherit Chaos, that reigns here In double night of darkness and of shades."

Milton.

"The grete Eroetrius, the king of Inde, Upon a stede buy, trapped in stele, Covered with cloth of gold diapred wele, Came riding like the god of arms.

His crispe here like ringes was yronne, And that was yelwe, and glittered as the Sonne; His nose was high; his eyen bright citrin; His lippes round; his coloure was sanguin."

Chaucer: Knight's Tale, v. 2158.

" While sallow autumn fills thy lap with leaves."

Collins.

"Awake! the morning shines, and the fresh field Calls us we lose the prime, to murk how spring Our tender plants, how blows the citron grove. What drops the myrrh, and what the balmy reed, - How Nature paints her colours, how the bee Sits on the bloom, extracting liquid sweets."

Milton.

"And on the tawny sands and shelves

Trip the port fairies and the dapper elves."

Contrasted, etc.

"No ivory work my halls infold, Nor arched ceilings gleaming gold;

Nor bear Hymettian columns wrought. The citron beams from Afric brought: Nor high-born dames would I e'er see The Spartan purple weave for me."

Horace: Carm xviii. lib. ii.

"The tawny lion panting to get free."

Milton.

"His tawny beard was th" equal grace Both of his wisdom and his face; The upper part thereof was whey, The nether, orange mix'd wiih grey."

Butler: Hudibras, Canto i.

Original citrine-coloured pigments are not numerous, unless we include several imperfect yellows, which might not improperly be called citrines: the following are, however, the pigments best entitled to this appellation: -