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Chromatography; Or, A Treatise On Colours And Pigments, And Of Their Powers In Painting | by George Field



The progress of the Art of Painting under the happy auspices of this favoured country, the refinement of taste which it has so universally diffused, and the predilection which prevails for its study and practice as a necessary branch of polite education, render acceptable whatever can facilitate the acquisition, or advance the ends, of this useful, elegant, and enlightening accomplishment. Nor are the concerns of this art uninteresting in a still higher view, since whatever refines the taste, enhances the powers and improves the disposition and morals of a people, - and whatever improves the morals, promotes the happiness of man, individual and social. Hence the high moral and political value of this art, to say nothing of its commercial and religious uses, upon which so much stress has been justly laid.

TitleChromatography; Or, A Treatise On Colours And Pigments, And Of Their Powers In Painting
AuthorGeorge Field
PublisherTilt And Bogue
Year1841
Copyright1841, Tilt And Bogue
AmazonChromatography, or A Treatise on Colours and Pigments, and of Their Powers in Painting

By George Field, Author Of "Chromatics, Or, An Essay On The Harmony Of Colours," Etc.

New Edition, Improved.

To Sir Martin Archer Shee, President Of The Royal Academy, The Artists Of Britain.

Gentlemen, The subject of the following Treatise is so essentially your own, that this address would he vain and uncalled-for, were it not due as a mark of respect and grateful attachment to yourselves, and an acknowledgment of the constant approbation and friendly attention with which you have encouraged the author, and identified him with yourselves and your pursuits. You, Gentlemen, have attained imperishable honour, by achieving for your country the only requisite to her transcendent reputation - pre-eminence in Art; and it needs not inspiration to foretell, that, by engrafting a refined taste on the prescripts of nature and science, you will consummate a school of colouring which is already celebrated and followed throughout Europe; and as the Greeks of old gave to succeeding ages models of perfect form, so you will bequeath to posterity standards of perfection in colour.

To become humbly instrumental to your progress by the improvement of your palette, is the design of this work, and the constant study of,

Gentlemen,

Your much obliged and faithful Servant,

The Author.

Cottage, Syon Hill Park.

Chromatography Or A Treatise On Colours And Pigmen 1Chromatography Or A Treatise On Colours And Pigmen 2
-Preface
The progress of the Art of Painting under the happy auspices of this favoured country, the refinement of taste which it has so universally diffused, and the predilection which prevails for its study a...
-Preface. Continued
A due selection and employment of colours materially is not alone sufficient, - an adequate knowledge of their reciprocal, sensible, and moral influences in painting, is essential to the production of...
-Chapter I. On Colouring
Colouring is the sunshine of the art, that clothes poverty in -smiles, and renders the prospect of barrenness itself agreeable, while it heightens the interest and doubles the charms of beauty. - Op...
-On Colouring. Part 2
The partial restoration of this branch of the art of Painting, if not even its invention, seems to have been coeval with oil painting; and the glory of it belongs to the Venetians, to whom the art pas...
-On Colouring. Part 3
This appeal from the decisions of criticism,* in behalf of colouring, is not intended to militate against the necessity the painter is under of studying the other branches of his art, nor to assert th...
-On Colouring. Part 4
Indeed the greatest masters of design in every school have given ready testimony to the claims of colouring; and, according to Vasari, even Michael Angelo himself, the greatest of them all, conceded t...
-Chapter II. On The Expression Of Colour
Every passion and affection of the mind has its appropriate tint; and colouring, if properly adapted, lends its aid, with powerful effect, in the just discrimination and forcible expression of them; ...
-On The Expression Of Colour. Part 2
By what mysterious power colours and sounds thus vibrate and reflect these affections, is beyond our present inquiry; if the fact be established, by investigating its instances we may induce or ge-ner...
-On The Expression Of Colour. Part 3
In collating the poets for instances of this poetical painting, none appears to our view to have had juster conception of the beauties and powers of colours than our great dramatist, whose genius seem...
-Chapter III. On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours
I know not if lessons of colouring have ever been given, notwithstanding it is a part so principal in painting that it has its rules founded on science and reason. Without such study it is impossible...
-On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours. Part 2
The eye is quiet, and the mind soothed and complacent, when colours are opposed to each other in equivalent proportions chromatically, or in such proportions as neutralize their individual activities....
-On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours. Part 3
By attention to these relations the student may approximate to a just conception of the powers of colours, and, assisted by a good eye, and a knowledge of his materials, may attain to a perfect applic...
-On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours. Part 4
If we inspect the works of Nature closely, we shall find that they have no uniform tints, whether it be in the animal, vegetal, or mineral creation; - be it flesh or foliage, the earth or the sky, a f...
-On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours. Part 5
There are, however, some anomalous popular names of classes, which, being shades nearly allied to the tertiary colours, have been confounded therewith, and being also of great practical importance, me...
-On The Relations And Harmony Of Colours. Part 6
Few artists have succeeded satisfactorily in this species of effect, which is principally attainable by close application to nature; and we have no finer examples thereof in art than the landscapes of...
-Chapter IV. On The Physical Causes Of Colours, Etc
The mind of Leonardo was, however, too active and capacious to be contented solely with the practical part of his art; nor could it submit to receive as principles, conclusions, though confirmed by e...
-On The Physical Causes Of Colours, Etc. Part 2
We may therefore regard the transient colours of refracted light, and also light itself, as Oxides of Hydrogen, produced by a species of combustion, attended by heat or caloric, as observed in the sun...
-On The Physical Causes Of Colours, Etc. Part 3
Upon this chemistry of light we may easily account for the variety of colours so beautifully displayed in vegetal nature, and principally in flowers, which acquire their colours as they expand, and un...
-On The Physical Causes Of Colours, Etc. Part 4
We may thus easily account for that temporary blindness which follows gazing on the sun or & powerful light, by which the principles of vision become exhausted. Thus also that kind of nycta-lophia whi...
-Chapter V. On The Durability And Fugacity Of Colours
Parthenius thinks in Reynolds' steps he treads, And every day a different palette spreads; Now bright in vegetable bloom he glows, His white - the lily, and his red - the rose; But soon aghast, amid ...
-On The Durability And Fugacity Of Colours. Part 2
The fugitive colours do less injury in the shadows than in the lights of a picture, because they are employed purer and in greater body in the shadows, and are, therefore, less liable to decay by the ...
-On The Durability And Fugacity Of Colours. Part 3
The first of these three plans, it is true, is the most scientific, since it depends upon the mind, and a thorough knowledge of the relations and effects of colours; while the second depends wholly up...
-Chapter VI. On The General Qualities Of Pigments
'Je vois bien, Datnun dit, 'que vous voulez que le peintre ne laisse rien echapper de lout ce qui est de plus avantageux dans son art.' - Du Pile: Dial. p. 9. Hitherto we have treated of colou...
-On The General Qualities Of Pigments. Continued
Fineness of texture is gotten by grinding and levigating extremely, but is only perfectly obtained by solution, - and this few pigments admit of; - it merits attention, however, that colours ground in...
-Chapter VII. On Colours And Pigments Individually
Parmi ies couleurs artificielles le peintre doit connoilre telle qui ont amitie; ensemble (pour ainsi dire), et celle qui ont antipathie; it en doit scavoir les valeurs separement, et par comparison ...
-Chapter VIII. On The Neutral, White
I take thy band; - this hand As soft as dove's down, and as white as it; Or Ethiopian's tooth, or the funn'd snow that's bolted By the northern blast twice o'er. - Shakspere. White, in a perfect...
-On The Neutral, White. Continued
Morally, white is expressive of modesty and sweetness, and contributes to these expressions in other colours, when mixed therewith, by subduing their force; it is hence the pleasing expression of pale...
-I. White Lead
White Lead, or ceruse, and other white oxides of lead, under the various denominations of London and Nottingham whites, &.C., Flake white, Crems or Cremnitz white, Roman and Venetian whiles, Blanc d'a...
-II. Zinc White
Zinc White is an oxide of zinc, which has been more celebrated as a pigment than used, being perfectly durable in water and oil, but wanting the body and brightness of fine white leads in oil; while i...
-III. Tin White
Tin White resembles zinc white in many respects, but dries badly, and has even less body and colour in oil, though superior to it in water. It is the basis of the best white in enamel painting. The...
-IV. Pearl White
There are two pigments of this denomination: one falsely so called, prepared from bismuth, which turns black in sulphuretted hydrogen gas or any impure air, and is used as a cosmetic; the other, prepa...
-V. Constant White
Constant White , permanent white, or Bart/tic white, is a sulphate of barytes, and when well prepared and free from acid is one of our best whites for water-painting, being of superior body in water, ...
-VI. White Chalk
White Chalk is a well-known native carbonate of lime, used by the artist only as a crayon, or for tracing his designs; for which purpose it is sawed into lengths suited to the portcrayon. White crayon...
-Chapter IX. Of The Primary Colours, Of Yellow
What is here? Gold 9 yellow, glittering, precious gold? No, Gods, I am no idle votarist Thus much of this, will make black, white; foul, fair; Wrong, right; base, noble; old, young; coward, valian...
-I. 1. Chrome Yellow
Chrome Yellow is a pigment of modern introduction into general use, and of considerable variety, which are mostly chromates of lead, in which the latter metal more or less abounds. They are distinguis...
-II. Patent Yellow
Patent Yellow, Turner's yellow, or Montpellier yellow, is a submuriate or chloruret of lead, which metal is the basis of most opaque yellow pigments: it is a hard, ponderous, sparkling substance, of a...
-III. Turbitii Mineral
Turbitii Mineral , or Queen's yellow, is a subsulphate of mercury, of a beautiful lemon yellow colour, but so liable to change by the action of light or impure air, that, notwithstanding it has been s...
-IV. Naples Yellow
Naples Yellow is a compound of the oxides of lead and antimony, antiently prepared at Naples under the name of Giallolini; it is supposed also to have been a native production of Vesuvius and other vo...
-V. Antimony Yellow
Antimony Yellow is also a preparation of antimony, of a deeper colour than Naples yellow, and similar in its properties. It is principally used in enamel and porcelain painting, and very various in ti...
-VI. Massicot, Or Masticot
MASSICOT, or Masticot, is a protoxide of lead, of a pale yellow colour, exceedingly varying in tint from the purest and most tender yellow or straw colour to pale ash colour or grey. It has in paintin...
-VII. Yellow Ochre
Yellow Ochre, called also Mineral yellow, is a native pigment, found in most countries, and abundantly in our own. It varies considerably in constitution and colour, in which latter particular it is f...
-VIII. 1. Terra Di Sienna, Or Raw Sienna Earth
Terra Di Sienna, Or Raw Sienna Earth , etc. is also a ferruginous native pigment, and appears to be an iron ore, which may be considered as a crude natural yellow lake, firm in substance, of a glossy ...
-IX. 1. Yellow Orpiment, Or Yellow Arsenic
Yellow Orpiment, Or Yellow Arsenic, is a sulphuretted oxide of arsenic, of a beautiful, bright, and pure yellow colour, not extremely durable in water, and less so in oil: in tint with white lead it i...
-X. Cadmium Yellow
Cadmium Yellow, Sulphuret of Cad-m'uiiii. The new metal, cadmium, affords, by precipitation with solution of sulphuretted hydrogen, a bright warm yellow pigment, which passes readily into tints with w...
-XI. Platina Yellow
Platina Yellow is, as its name implies, a preparation from platina, which has afforded the author a series of yellow pigments, the deep of which resemble the Terra di Sienna (VIII.), but are warmer in...
-XII. Lemon Yellow
Lemon Yellow is of a beautiful light vivid colour. In body and opacity it is nearly equal to Naples yellow and masticot, but much more pure and lucid in colour and tint, and at the same time not liabl...
-XIII. Iodine Yellow
Iodine Yellow, Ioduret of Lead, is a precipitate from an acid solution of lead by an alkaline solution of iodine, of a bright yellow colour, which, from its active chemical affinities, and the little ...
-XIV. Madder Yellow
Madder Yellow is a preparation from the madder-root. The best is of a bright colour, resembling Indian yellow, but more powerful and transparent, though hardly equal to it in durability of hue; metall...
-XV. Ft. Gamboge
XV. Ft. Gamboge; or, as it is variously written, Gumboge, Camboge, Gambouge, Cambo-gia, Cambadium, Cambogium, Gambadium, Gam-bogium, etc. is brought principally, it is said, from Cambaja in India, and...
-XVI. Gall-Stone
Gall-Stone is an animal calculus formed in the gall-bladder, principally of oxen. This concretion varies a little in colour, but is in general of a beautiful golden yellow, more powerful than gamboge,...
-XVII. Indian Yellow
Indian Yellow is a pigment long employed in India under the name Puree, but has not many years been introduced generally into painting in Europe. It is imported in the form of balls, is of a fetid odo...
-XVIII. Yellow Lake
There are several pigments of this denomination, varying in colour and appearance according to the colouring substances used and modes of preparation. They are usually in the form of drops, and their ...
-Chapter X. Of Red
Celestial rosy red. Love's proper hue. Milton: Paradise Lost. RED is the second and intermediate of the primary colours, standing between yellow and blue; and in like intermediate relation also t...
-Of Red. Continued
As powerful, it has become the symbol of power and distinction, and hence has decorated equally the regal robe and the mantle of martyrdom, producing awe, veneration, and fear; while in its gentler of...
-I. Vermilion
Vermilion is a sulphuret of mercury, which, previous to its being levigated, is called cinnabar. It is an antient pigment, the of the Greeks, and is both found in a native state and produced arti...
-II. Iodine Scarlet
Iodine Scarlet is a new pigment of a most vivid and beautiful scarlet colour, exceeding the brilliancy of vermilion. It has received several false appellations, but is truly an Iodide or Bi-iodide of ...
-IV. Red Lead, Minium, Or Saturnine Red
Red Lead, Minium, Or Saturnine Red, is an antient pigment, by some old writers confounded with cinnabar, and called Sinoper or Synoper, is a deutoxide of lead, prepared by subjecting massicot to the h...
-V. Red Ochre
Red Ochre is a name proper rather to a class than to an individual pigment, and comprehends Indian red, light red, Venetian red, scarlet ochre, Indian ochre, redding, ruddle, bole, etc, beside other a...
-VI. Dragon's Blood
Dragon's Blood is a resinous substance, brought principally from the East Indies. It is of a warm semi-transparent, rather dull, red colour, which is deepened by impure air, and darkened by light. The...
-VII. Lake (Color)
Lake, a name derived from the lac or lacca of India, is the cognomen of a variety of transparent red and other coloured pigments of great beauty, prepared for the most part by precipitating coloured t...
-VII. Lake (Color). Continued
4. Florentine Lake Florentine Lake differs from the last, only in the mode of preparation, the lake so called having been formerly extracted from the shreds of scarlet cloth. The same may be said a...
-Chapter XI. Of Blue
Where'er we gaze, - around, above, below, What rainbow tints, what magic charms are found Rock, river, forest, mountain, all abound, And bluest skies that harmonize the whole. Byron: Childe Harol...
-I. Ultramarine, Lazuline, Or Azure
ULTRAMARINE, Lazuline, or Azure, is prepared from the lapis lazuli, a precious stone found principally in Persia and Siberia, It is the most celebrated of all modem pigments, and, from its name and at...
-II. Factitious Ultramarine, French
Ultramarine, Outremere de Guitnet, Bleu de Ga-rance, and Gmelin's German Ultramarine. In some of the latter numbers of Brande's Journal are accounts of a process for producing factitious ultramarine; ...
-III. 1. Cobalt Blue
Cobalt Blue is the name now appropriated to the modern improved blue prepared with metallic cobalt, or its oxides, although it properly belongs to a class of pigments including Saxon blue, Dutch ultra...
-IV. 1. Prussian Blue
Prussian Blue, otherwise called Berlin blue, Parisian blue, Prussiate of Iron, Cyanide of Iron, or. in language more pedantically chemical, Per-ferro-cyanate of Iron, with alumina, etc, is rather a mo...
-V. 1. Indigo, Or Indian Blue
Indigo, or Indian Blue, is a pigment manufactured in the East and West Indies from several plants, but principally from the anil or indigofera. It is of various qualities, and has been long known, and...
-VI. 1. Blue Verditer
Blue Verditer is a blue oxide of copper, or precipitate of the nitrate of copper by lime, and is of a beautiful light blue colour. It is little affected by light; but time, damp, and impure air, turn ...
-VII. Bice, Blue Bice, Iris, Or Terre Bleu
Bice, Blue Bice, Iris, Or Terre Bleu, is sometimes confounded with the above copper blues; but the true bice is said to be prepared from the lapis Armenius of Germany and the Tyrol, and is a light bri...
-VIII. Blue Ochre
Blue Ochre is a mineral colour of rare occurrence, found with iron pyrites in Cornwall, and also in North America, and is a sub-phospkate of iron. What Indian red is to the colour red, and Oxford ochr...
-IX. Blue Carmine
Blue Carmine is a blue oxide of molybdena, of which little is known as a substance or as a pigment. It is said to be of a beautiful blue colour, and durable in a strong light, but is subject to be cha...
-Chapter XII. Of The Secondary Colours. Of Orange
Bear me to the citron groves - To where the lemon and the piercing lime, With the deep orange glowing through the green, Their lighter glories blend. Thomson. Orange is the first of the secon...
-I. Mixed Orange
Orange being a colour compounded of red and yellow, the place of original orange pigments may be supplied by mixture of the two latter colours; by glazing one over the other; by stippling, or other mo...
-II. Orange Vermilion
Orange Vermilion is a bisulphuret of quicksilver, or vermilion of an orange colour, newly introduced: it resembles red-lead in appearance, but is not subject to its changes, being a perfectly durable ...
-III. 1. Chrome Orange
Chrome Orange is a beautiful orange pigment, and is one of the most durable and least exceptionable chromates of lead, and not of iron, as it is commonly called, or Mars Scar/el, another misnomer of t...
-IV. 1. Orange Ochre
Orange Ochre, called also Spanish ochre, etc. is a very bright yellow ochre burnt, by which operation it acquires warmth, colour, transparency, and depth. In colour it is moderately bright, forms good...
-V. Orange Lead
Orange Lead is an oxide of lead of a more vivid and warmer colour than red lead, but in other respects does not differ essentially from that pigment in its qualification for the palette. ...
-VI. Orange Orpiment
Orange Orpiment, or Realgar, improperly called also Red orpiment, since it is of a brilliant orange colour, inclining to yellow. There are two kinds of this pigment; the one native, the other factitio...
-VII. Golden Sulphur Of Antimony, Golden Yellow
Golden Sulphur Of Antimony, Golden Yellow, is a hydro- sulphuret of antimony of an orange colour, which is destroyed by the action of strong light. It is a bad dryer in oil, injurious to many colours,...
-VIII. Madder Orange, Or Orange Lake
Madder Orange, Or Orange Lake, is a madder lake of an orange hue, varying from yellow to rose-colour and brown. This variety of madder colours differs not essentially in other respects from those of w...
-IX. Anotta, Arnotta, Annotto, Terra Or-Leana, Roucou
Anotta, Arnotta, Annotto, Terra Or-Leana, Roucou, etc. are names of a vegetal substance brought from the West Indies, of an orange-red colour, soluble in water and spirit of wine, but very fugitive an...
-Chapter XIII. Of Green
But where fair Isis rolls her purer wave The partial muse delighted loves to lave; On her green banks a greener wreath is wove, To crown the bards that haunt her classic grove. Byron. GREEN, w...
-Of Green. Continued
The poets have distinguished this colour by the epithet cheerful; verdure is also the symbol of hope, which, like the animating greenness of plants, leaves us only with life: it is also emblematical o...
-I. Mixed Greens
Green being a compound of blue and yellow, pigments of these colours may be used to supply the place of green pigments, by compounding them in the several ways of working - by mixing, glazing, hatchin...
-II. Terre-Verte
True Terre-Verte is an ochre of a bluish green colour not very bright, in substance moderately hard, and smooth in texture. It is variously a bluish or grey coaly clay, combined with yellow oxide of i...
-III. Chrome Greens
Chrome Greens, commonly so called, are compound pigments, of which chrome yellow is the principal colouring substance. These are also called Brunswick green, etc. and are compounds of chromate of lead...
-IV. Cobalt Greens
There are two pigments of this denomination, the one a compound of cobalt blue and chromic yellow, which partakes of the qualities of those pigments, and may be formed on the palette, - the other, an ...
-V. 1. Copper Green
Copper Green is the appellation of a class rather than of an individual pigment, under which are comprehended Verdigris, Verditer, Ma-hichili' mineral green, Green bice, Scheie's green, Schweinfurt or...
-VI. Scheele's Green
Scheele's Green is a compound oxide of copper and arsenic, or arsenite of copper, named after the justly celebrated chemist who discovered it. It is variously of a beautiful, light, warm, green colour...
-VII. Prussian Green
The pigment celebrated under this name is an imperfect prussiate of iron, or Prussian blue, in which the yellow oxide of iron superabounds, or to which yellow tincture of French berries has been added...
-VIII. Sap Green, Or Verde Vessie
Sap Green, Or Verde Vessie, is a vegetal pigment prepared from the juice of the berries of the buckthorn, the green leaves of the woad, the blue flowers of the iris, etc. It is usually preserved in bl...
-Chapter XIV. Of Purple
Over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flow'd Livelier than Melibteait, or the grain Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old. Milton. Purple, the third and last of the secondary colours...
-I. Mixed Purples
Purple being a secondary colour, composed of blue and red, it follows of course that any blue and red pigments, which are not chemically at variance, may be used in producing mixed purple pigments of ...
-II. Gold Purple, Or Cassius's Purple
Gold Purple, Or Cassius's Purple Precipitate, is the compound oxide which is precipitated upon mixing the solutions of gold and tin. It is not a bright, but a rich and powerful colour, of great durabi...
-III. Madder Purple, Purple Rubiate, Or Field's Purple
Madder Purple, Purple Rubiate, Or Field's Purple, is a very rich and deep carmine, prepared from madder. Though not a brilliant purple, its richness, durability, transparency, and superiority of colou...
-IV. Burnt Carmine
Burnt Carmine is, according to its name, the carmine of cochineal partially charred till it resembles in colour the purple of gold, for the uses of which in miniature and water-painting it is substitu...
-V. Purple Lake
The best purple lake so called is prepared from cochineal, and is of a rich and powerful colour, inclined to crimson. Its character as a pigment is that of the cochineal lakes already described. It is...
-VII. Purple Ochre, Or Mineral Purple
Purple Ochre, Or Mineral Purple, is a dark ochre, native of the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire. It is of a murrey or chocolate colour, and forms cool tints of a purple hue with white. It is of a si...
-Chapter XV. Of The Tertiary Colours. Of Citrine
His nose was high, his eyen bright citrin. Chaucer: Knight's Tale. CITRINE, or the colour of the Citron, is the first of the tertiary class of colours, or ultimate compounds of the primary tri...
-I. Mixed Citrine
What has been before remarked of the mixed secondary colours is more particularly applicable to the tertiary, it being more difficult to select three homogeneous substances, of equal powers as pigment...
-II. Brown Pink
Brown Pink is a vegetal lake precipitated from the decoction of French berries, and dyeing woods, and is sometimes the residuum of the dyer's vat. It is of a fine, rich, transparent colour, rarely of ...
-III. Citrine Lake
Citrine Lake is a more durable and better drying species of brown pink, prepared from the quercitron bark. The citrine of the definitive scale, p. 39, is of this pigment. ...
-IV. Cassia Fistula
Cassia Fistula is a native vegetal pigment, though it is more commonly used as a medicinal drug. It is brought from the East and West Indies in a sort of cane, in which it is naturally produced. As a ...
-V. Umber
Umber, commonly called Raw Umber, is a natural ochre, abounding with oxide of manganese, said to have been first obtained from an-tient Ombria, now Spoleto, in Italy; - it is found also in England, an...
-Chapter XVI. Of Russet
'Tis iweet and tad the latest notes to hear Of distant music dying on the ear; Tis sweet to hear expiring summer's sigh, Thro forests tinged with Russet, wail and die. Joanna Baillie. The seco...
-I. Mixed Russet
What has been remarked in the preceding chapter upon the production of mixed citrine colours, is equally applicable in general to the mixed russets: we need not, therefore, repeat it. By the immediate...
-II. Russet Rubiate, Madder Brown, Or Field's Russet
Russet Rubiate, Madder Brown, Or Field's Russet, is, as its names indicate, prepared from the rubia tinctoria, or madder-root. It is of a pure, rich, transparent, and deep russet colour; of a true mid...
-III. Prussiate Of Copper
Prussiate Of Copper differs chemically from Prussian blue only in having copper instead of iron for its basis. It varies in colour from russet to brown, is transparent and deep, but, being very liable...
-Chapter XVII. Of Olive
Athens, the eye of Greece, mother of Arts And Eloquence, native to famous wits, Or hospitable; in her sweet recess. City or suburban, studious walks and shades. See there the olive grove of Academe,...
-I. Mixed Olive
Mixed Olive may be compounded in several ways; directly, by uniting green and. purple, or by adding to blue a smaller proportion of yellow and red, or by breaking much blue with little orange. Cool bl...
-II. Olive Green
The fine pigment sold under this name, principally as a water-colour, is an arbitrary compound, or mixed green, eligible for its uses in landscape, sketching, etc. ...
-III. Burnt Verdigris
Burnt Verdigris is what its name expresses, and is an olive-coloured oxide of copper deprived of acid. It dries remarkably well in oil, and is more durable; and, in other respects, an improved and mor...
-IV. Olive Lake
Olive Lake is a lake prepared from the green ebony, or laburnum, and is of considerable durability, transparency, and great depth, both in water and oil; in which latter vehicle it dries well. The oli...
-Chapter XVIII. Of Semi-Neutral Colours. Of Brown
Kate, like the hazel-twig, Is straight and slender; and as brown in hue As hazel-nuts, and sweeter than their kernels. Shakspere: Taming of the Shrew. As colour, according to the regular scale...
-I. Vandyke Brown
This pigment, hardly less celebrated than the great painter whose name it bears, is a species of peat or bog-earth of a fine, deep, semi-transparent brown colour. The pigment so much esteemed and used...
-II. 1. Manganese Brown
Manganese Brown is an oxide of manganese, of a fine, deep, semi-opaque brown of good body, which dries admirably well in oil. It is deficient of transparency, but may be a useful colour for glazing or...
-III. Burnt Umber
Burnt Umber is the fossil pigment called Umber, burnt, by which it becomes of a deeper and more russet hue. It contains manganese and iron, and is very drying in oil, in which it is employed as a drye...
-IV. Cassel Earth, Or, Corruptly. Castle Earth
The true terre de Cassel is an ochrous pigment similar to the preceding, but of a brown colour, more inclined to the russet hue. In other respects it does not differ essentially from Rubens' and Vandy...
-V. Cologn Earth
Cologn Earth, incorrectly called Culteris-earth, is a native pigment, darker than the two last, and in no respect differing from Vandyke brown in its uses and properties as a colour. Similar earths ab...
-VI. Rubens Brown
The pigment still in use in the Netherlands under this appellation is an earth of a lighter colour and more ochrous texture than the Vandyke brown of the London shops: it is also of a warmer or more t...
-IX. Bone Brown And Ivory Brown
Bone Brown And Ivory Brown are produced by torrefying, or roasting, bone and ivory till by partially charring they become of a brown colour throughout. They may be made to resemble the live first brow...
-X. Asphaltum
Asphaltum, called also Bitumen, Mi-neral Pitch, Jews' Pitch, etc. is a resinous substance rendered brown by the action of fire, natural or artificial. The substances employed in painting under this na...
-XI. Mummy, Or Egyptian Brown
Mummy, or Egyptian Brown, is also a bituminous substance combined with animal remains, brought from the catacombs of Egypt, where liquid bitumen was employed three thousand years ago in embalming; in ...
-XII. Antwerp Brown
Antwerp Brown is a preparation of asphaltum ground in strong drying-oil, by which it becomes less liable to crack. See the two last articles. Ochrous bitumens, bituminous coal, jet, and other bitumino...
-XIII. Bistre
Bistre is a brown pigment extracted by watery solution from the soot of wood-fires, whence it retains a strong pyroligneous scent. It is of a wax-like texture, and of a citrine-brown colour, perfectly...
-XIV. Sepia, Seppia, Or Animal ĘThiops
This pigment is named after the sepia, or cuttle' fish, which is called also the ink-fish, from its affording a dark liquid, which was used as an ink and pigment by the antients. From this liquid our ...
-XV. Hypocastanum, Or Chestnut Brown
Hypocastanum, or Chestnut Brown, is a brown lake prepared from the horse-chestnut; transparent and rich in colour, warmer than brown pink, and very durable both in water and oil; in the latter of whic...
-XVIII. Prussian Brown
Prussian Brown is a preparation of Prussian blue, from which the blue colouring principle has been expelled by fire, or extracted by an alkaline ley; it is an orange brown, of the nature and propertie...
-XIX. Brown Ink
Various of these were used in sketching by Claude, Rembrandt, and many of the old masters; the principal of which were solutions of bistre and sepia. Less eligible preparations, which have faded or de...
-Chapter XIX. Of Marrone
We have adopted the term marrone for our second and middle semi-neutral, as univocal of a class of impure colours composed of black and red, black and purple, or black and russet pigments, or with bla...
-Chapter XX. Of Gray
Down sunk the sun, the closing hour of day Came onward, mantled o'er with dusky gray. Parnrel. Of the tribe of semi-neutral colours, Gray is the third and last, being nearest in relation of co...
-Chapter XXI. Of The Neutral, Black
If white and black blend, soften, and unite A thousand ways, is there no black and white? Pope. Black is the last and lowest in the series or scale of colours descending, - the opposite extrem...
-Of The Neutral, Black. Part 2
For this there can be no just excuse in natural subjects, whatever there may be in the romantic and poetical, where the obscure (oscuro) is, or is pretended to be, essential to sublimity and beautv; w...
-Of The Neutral, Black. Part 3
We have endeavoured to shew, under their proper heads, how black is related to, and how it affects each colour individually in painting. Black, white, red, blue, green, purple, and brown, are the colo...
-III. Frankfort Black
Frankfort Black is said to be made of the lees of wine from which the tartar has been washed, by burning, in the manner of ivory black. Similar blacks are prepared of vine twigs and tendrils, which co...
-VI. Purple Black
Purple Black is a preparation of madder, of a deep purple hue approaching black: its tints with white lead are of a purple colour. It is very transparent and powerful, glazes and dries well in oil, an...
-VII. Mineral Black
Mineral Black is a native impure oxide of carbon, of a soft texture, found in Devonshire. It is blacker than plumbago, and free from its metallic lustre, - is of a neutral colour, greyer and more opaq...
-VIII. Manganese Black
The common black oxide of manganese answers to the character of the preceding pigment, and is the best of all blacks for drying in oil without addition, or preparation of the oil. It is also a colour ...
-IX. Black Ochre
Black Ochre is a variety of the mineral black above, combined with iron and alluvial clay. It is found in most countries, and should be washed and exposed to the atmosphere before it is used. Sea-coal...
-X. Black Chalk
Black Chalk is an indurated black clay, of the texture of white chalk, and is naturally allied to the preceding article. Its principal use is for cutting into the crayons, which are employed in sketch...
-XL. Indian Ink
The pigment well known under this name is principally brought to us from China in oblong cakes, of a musky scent, ready prepared for painting in water; in which use it is so well known, and so general...
-XII. Black Lead, Plumbago, Or Graphite
Black Lead, Plumbago, Or Graphite, is a native carburet of iron or oxide of carbon, found in many countries, but nowhere more abundantly, or so fine in quality, as at Borrodale in Cumberland, where th...
-Chapter XXII. Tables Of Pigments
As there are circumstances under which some pigments may very properly and safely be used, which under others might prove injurious or destructive to the work, the following Lists or Tables are subjoi...
-Tables Of Pigments. Continued
Table VII Pigments more or less transparent, and generally fit to be employed as glazing and finishing colours, if not disqualified according to Tables I., II., and III.: - Yellow . ...
-On Fresco, Etc
The art of painting in fresco is so naturally adapted to the grandeur of historical and patriotic painting, to which it appears to have been first applied, and the zealous attention of eminent artists...
-Chapter XXIII. On Vehicles And Varnishes
How many fondly waste the studious hour To seek in process what they want in power; Till, all in gums engross'd, macgilps, and oils, The painter sinks amid the chemist's toils. Shee. Since col...
-I. Water Vehicles
The most natural or fit distribution of vehicles is into those of water, oils, and their mediums or compounds; under which heads we proceed to regard them, and the various substances employed as addit...
-Mediums
Many attempts have been made to unite the advantages of the two modes of painting - of water and oil - either by successive processes, or by the use of a vehicle of a compound or intermediate affinity...
-Oil Vehicles
The early painters in oil appear to have proceeded in the manner of water-colour drawing; - beginning to sketch in on a white ground, and producing their effects with transparent colours - embossing t...
-Oil Vehicles. Continued
Once gave them strength and saved the freshness of the colours from the contamination of the oil: which advantages oil-painting obtained by its gradual transition from the methods of fresco and distem...
-Oils
Oils are distinguished into Fat oils, Drying oils, and Volatile oils; the two first are also called fixed and expressed oils, as the latter are essential oik. All oils become thickened by age, and mor...
-Linseed Oil
Of the expressed or drying oils appropriate to painting, the Linseed is by far the strongest, and that which dries best, most tenaciously, and firmest under proper management; which properties it owes...
-Poppy Oil
Poppy Oil is much celebrated in some old books under the appellations of oil of pinks and oil of carnations, as erroneously translated from the French ceillet, or olivet, a local name for the poppy in...
-Nut Oils
Nut Oils have even less of the gluten, or gelatine, which give strength and desiccativeuess to linseed oil, and come nearer to the nature of animal oils, which never dry perfectly; resembling, in this...
-Olive Oil
Olive Oil has the valuable property of permanently retaining a good colour; but this advantage is overbalanced by the almost impossi-bility of drying it, both which properties it communicates in mixtu...
-Volatile Oils
Volatile Oils, procured by distillation from turpentine, and other vegetal substances, are almost destitute of the strength of the expressed oils, having hardly more cementing power in painting than w...
-Oil Of Lavender
Oil Of Lavender is of two kinds, the fine-scented English oil, and the cheaper foreign oil, called oil of spike; these are rather more volatile and more powerful solvents than the oil of turpentine, w...
-Naphtha
Naphtha, and the Coal Oil of our gas-works, are even more powerful solvents than the vegetal essential oils; but, on this account, and the bad scent of the latter, they are less eligible for the paint...
-Spirit Of Wine Or Alcohol
Spirit Of Wine or Alcohol, is weaker and more dilute than essential oils, or even than water, and is so volatile as to be of use in vehicle; only as a medium for combining oik with resins. etc. - as a...
-Varnishing
The last operation of painting is varnishing, which completes the intention of the vehicle, by causing the design and colouring to bear out with their fullest freshness, force, and keeping; supplies, ...
-Resinous Varnishes
Resinous Varnishes are either spirit varnishes, volatile oil varnishes, fixed oil varnishes, or compounds of these, their usual solvents being either spirit of wine or alcohol, oil of turpentine, or l...
-Mastic Varnish
It is true that other soft resins are sometimes substituted for that of mastic, and that very elaborate compounds of them have been recommended and celebrated, but none that possess any evident advant...
-Copal Varnish
As other soft resins are sometimes substituted for mastic, so inferior hard resins are sometimes employed in the place of copal in the composition of varnishes celebrated as copal varnishes; but the s...
-Amber Varnish
Amber Varnish has been more reputed in painting than it merits. The process by which it is prepared is the same as that of copal; but amber is more difficult of solution, is of a deeper colour than co...
-White Lac Varnish
White Lac Varnish is a new varnish, prepared by dissolving in alcohol the lac resin of India deprived of all colouring matter, and purified from gluten, wax, and other extraneous substances with which...
-Chapter XXIV. On Grounds
The last thing in the order of our analysis is the ground and basis on which colours, pigments, and vehicles, are applied in painting; and as the basis of fresco-painting is plaster, and that of water...
-Chapter XXV. On Picture Cleaning And Restoring
The diseases and disorders which injure and destroy pictures are almost as numerous as those of animal nature, and dependent on similar causes and accidents: hence picture-cleaning has become a myster...
-On Picture Cleaning And Restoring. Continued
If more action is requisite than the spirituous mixture affords, the more active essential oils, and those of naphtha and coal-oil rectified, or kreosote, may be employed, or the pure alcohol, with th...
-Note A, Page 9. Decisions Of Criticism
It is highly important In the student that the question concerning the true rank and esteem of the various styles and departments of painting, and of the of colouring in particular, should be rightly ...
-Note B, Page 18. Works of Raphael at Rome
That Sir Joshua Reynolds felt unaffected upon a first inspection of the works of Raphael at Rome, was owing. doubtlessly, to the general unattractiveness of their colouring. Many he observed, experien...
-Note C, Page 38. Primaries
Newton having produced seven colours from a beam of light analytically, by prismatic refraction, and hat unable to resolve either of them into other colours by prat; them alternately through a second ...
-Note D, Pages 38, 55. The Relations Of Colours Regularly From White or Light
Having deduced the relations of colours regularly from white or light, through the primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries. * Exp. xxvii. p. 247, 4to. edition of this, work. To black or shade, we...
-Now E, Page 41. Exhibiting Colours Under Various References
Many diagrams have been contrived for exhibiting colours under various references; the schemes of Kirclier, I,amon Newton, and Harris, are well known to these may be aded the devices and diagrams of M...
-Note F, Page 74. The Constitution Of Light
Our theory of the constitution of light, upon whicli we a terpret the phenomena of inherent and transient colours by chemical election, is fully adequate to the explanation of the colours of transmitt...
-Note G, Page 75. Various Defects Of Vision With Regard To Colours
Unequal affinities of the organ may explain thus various defects of vision with regard to colours.----a imperfect eye for colours is hardly, perhaps, less common than a bad ear for musical soun...
-Note H, Page 77. The Effect Of Any Colour Intently Viewed, In Producing Its Opposite Colour As An Ocular Spectrum
The effect of any colour intently viewed, in producing its opposite colour as an ocular spectrum; the efftcts of two colours of the prismatic spectrum, when cast separately into the two eyes at the sa...
-Note I, Page 115. The Colour Of The Walls Of The Study And Gallery Of The Artist
As the eye of the artist is necessarily influenced in painting by light and surrounding colours, and as the same circumstances powerfully affect his finished works, the colour of the walls of the stud...
-By The Same Author
Outlines Of Analogical Philosophy Being a primary view of the Principles, Relations, and Purposes of Nature. Science, and Art, and a methodical Encyclopedia. 2 vols. 8vo. 30s. cloth. Chromati...







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