This section is from the book "Chromatography; Or, A Treatise On Colours And Pigments, And Of Their Powers In Painting", by George Field. Also available from Amazon: Chromatography, or A Treatise on Colours and Pigments, and of Their Powers in Painting.
Russet Rubiate, Madder Brown, Or Field's Russet, is, as its names indicate, prepared from the rubia tinctoria, or madder-root. It is of a pure, rich, transparent, and deep russet colour; of a true middle hue between orange and purple; not subject to change by the action of light, impure air, time, or mixture of other pigments. It has supplied a great desideratum, and is indispensable in water-colour painting, both as a local and auxiliary colour, in compounding and producing with yellow the glowing hues of autumnal foliage, etc, and with blue the beautiful and endless variety of grays in skies, flesh, etc. There are three kinds of this pigment, distinguished by variety of hue: russet, or madder brown, orange russet, and purple russet, or intense madder brown; which differ not essentially in their qualities as pigments, but as warm or cool russets, and are all good glazing colours, thin washes of which afford pure flesh-tints in water. The last dries best in oil, the others but indifferently. The russet of the Definitive Scale, Pl. I. fig. 3, is of the second kind.