This section is from the book "Chromatography; Or, A Treatise On Colours And Pigments, And Of Their Powers In Painting", by George Field. Also available from Amazon: Chromatography, or A Treatise on Colours and Pigments, and of Their Powers in Painting.
Manganese Brown is an oxide of manganese, of a fine, deep, semi-opaque brown of good body, which dries admirably well in oil. It is deficient of transparency, but may be a useful colour for glazing or lowering the tone of white without tinging it, and as a local colour in draperies, dead-colouring, etc. It is a perfectly durable colour both in water and oil.
Cappagh Brown,Or Euchrame, is a Native Manganese Brown, found on the estate of Lord Audley at Cappagh, near Cork. It is a bog-earth or peat, mixed or mineralized by manganese in various proportions. The specimens in which the peat earth most abounds are of light weight, friable texture, and dark colour, - those which contain more of the metal are heavy and of a lighter colour.
As pigments, the peaty Cappagh brown is the most transparent, deep and rich in colour, and dries promptly in oil, during which its surface rivels where it lies thick. This may be regarded as a superior Vandyke brown and Asphaltum.
The other and metallic sort is a less transparent, lighter, and warmer brown pigment, which dries rapidly and smoothly in a body or thick layer, and is a superior umber. They do not keep their place while drying in oil by fixing the oil, like the driers of lead, but run. The two extreme sorts should be distinguished as light and deep Cappagh browns; the first excellent for dead colouring, and grounds, the latter for glazing and graining. These pigments are equally applicable to painting in water, oil, and varnish, working well in each of these vehicles. They have been introduced into commerce for civil and marine painting under the names of Euchrome and Mineral hrown, and are fine colours and valuable acquisitions in all their uses.