This section is from the book "Chromatography; Or, A Treatise On Colours And Pigments, And Of Their Powers In Painting", by George Field. Also available from Amazon: Chromatography, or A Treatise on Colours and Pigments, and of Their Powers in Painting.
Umber, commonly called Raw Umber, is a natural ochre, abounding with oxide of manganese, said to have been first obtained from an-tient Ombria, now Spoleto, in Italy; - it is found also in England, and in most parts of the world; but that which is brought from Cyprus, under the name of Turkish umber, is the best. It is of a brown-citrine colour, semi-opaque, has all the properties of a good ochre, is perfectly durable both in water and oil, and one of the best drying colours we possess, and injures no other good pigment with which it may be mixed. See Cappagk Brown, some specimens of which are of a citrine hue. Although not so much employed as formerly, umber is perfectly eligible according to its colour and uses.
Several browns, and other ochrous earths, approach also to the character of citrines; such are the Terre de Cassel, Bistre, etc. But in the confusion of names, infinity of tones and tints, and variations of individual pigments, it is impossible to attain an unexceptionable or universally satisfactory arrangement; - we have, therefore, followed a middle and general course in distributing pigments under their proper heads.