Shingle Stains of High Quality can be produced only by using the strongest and finest oil colors as base, because they are chiefly used for staining the shingles before being laid. Coal tar creosote is introduced as part of the vehicle for preservative quality, wood creosote having been found wanting in that respect. Aside from creosote all manner of thinning materials have been used, from common kerosene oil to petroleum benzine, gasoline and benzol. The latter is beneficial especially for certain woods, but competition in prices will not permit any extensive use of it. For light stains the usual run of creosote is by far too dark and cresylic acid is used instead in spite of its high cost. We will confine the description of the composition of shingle stains to a few formulas for the most popular colors and may mention the fact that stains made by these have held out splendidly for seven years, the roofs looking as good as new, the shingles having been dipped before being laid and afterwards given a brush coat of the stain.

Deep Green Stain (Chrome Green Type)

Fifteen pounds chemically pure chrome green deep in oil, one gallon benzine japan drier, four gallons creosote oil, four gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons.

Mineral Red Stain (Venetian Red Type)

Seventeen pounds red oxide (95 per cent) ground fine in oil, one gallon benzine japan drier, four gallons creosote oil, four gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons.

Walnut Brown Stain (Dark)

Thirteen pounds burnt Turkey umber, ground in oil, one-half gallon benzine japan drier, one-half gallon 160-degree benzol, five gallons creosote oil, three gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons.

Silver Grey Stain

Twenty pounds zinc white, ground in bleached linseed oil, one-eighth pound lampblack in oil, well beaten up with one quart pale liquid drier, after which another quart of same drier is added, also one-half gallon straw colored cresylic acid and when well mixed, eight gallons heavy benzine. Result, 10 gallons.

To decrease cost, when necessary, part of the heavy benzine may be replaced with 110-degree test kerosene, but under no condition should an attempt be made to lessen cost of production by adding base material to the color, as it does not hold in suspension, nor should aniline colors be substituted for pigment colors. Sometimes it is desired to have shingle stains without creosote oil or carbolic acid of any kind, and in that case it is best to replace creosote, carbolic or cresylic acid by using part turpentine with high test kerosene and heavy benzine. Or, for example, to make a rich brown stain without creosote, mix 14 pounds hurnt Italian sienna in oil, break up with one-half gallon japan drier, add one gallon each linseed oil and turpentine, another one-half gallon drier, two gallons high-test kerosene and four gallons heavy benzine to make 10 gallons of stain.