When pure red lead in oil is demanded by the trade the manufacturer usually grinds it to order only, though he may keep a small quantity in stock in small cans. But it is an established fact that pure red lead, no matter how well made and how carefully mixed with pure linseed oil and ground without friction, will not keep from becoming solid in the containers in paste form for any length of time, nor will it, when mixed ready for application, hold in suspension or keep from going to the bottom of the package, finally caking hard. Many trials have been made and every one failed of its purpose. There are now on the market red lead products in ready-for-use form in oil, so called, but when examined they are found to consist of basic lead chromate colored with red coal-tar derivatives, and while resembling red lead are devoid of the cementing properties of the latter. When a certain percentage of non-drying oil is added to linseed oil in the mixing of red lead one would naturally expect to see the hardening or saponifying tendencies retarded; but such is not the case, at least not in the measure looked for. However, when red lead in pure linseed oil is wanted for work that is to be done at once or where the paint is to be used inside of a month, well-selected red lead may be mixed at the rate of ninety-one pounds to nine pounds of well-settled raw linseed oil and run, if necessary, through an iron or steel mill of large diameter into the package in which it is to be shipped, but care must be exercised to keep the mill from heating. The use of stone mills must be avoided, as the friction of the stone breaks up the crystalline particles of the red lead, dulling its brightness and causing a more rapid oxidation of the oil. The red lead and eosine vermillion reds or vermillion substitute, when ground without the addition of inert bases, exhibited similar tendencies. This was the reason why the implement manufacturing trade, before the advent of the paranitraniline reds, preferred to purchase their wants of vermillion reds in the dry powder form with more or less inert mineral base. To this saponifying or solidifying tendency of red lead in oil was also due that the government services specify all red lead to be supplied in the dry form, as they also used to specify their English (quicksilver) as well as the artificial vermillions. Eosine vermillion reds, based on French orange mineral, would keep well in sealed cans when ground in well-settled raw or bleached linseed oil, excepting the very deep shades, that contained quite a large portion of eosine coloring matter; those not containing over 2 1/2 to 3 per cent would keep soft in paste form for a year in well-sealed packages. The usual percentage of pigment was eighty-four to eighty-five pounds in a one hundred-pound batch, the oil fifteen to sixteen pounds. English vermillion has kept best in containers when ground in these proportions, although it also tends to settle badly when put up in the pure state. This was one of the principal reasons why, up to twenty-five years ago, neither English nor artificial vermillion was ever put up for the trade in oil without the addition of a suspending base, like whiting or china clay. The ready-for-use red lead paints found on the market to-day are usually pure red lead reduced with such mineral bases to keep in suspension and meet competitive prices. A red lead paste paint in linseed oil that showed fairly good covering after being properly thinned with raw linseed oil, oil drier and a small portion of turpentine showed on analysis to be composed of fifty parts by weight of red lead, seventeen parts by weight of china clay, seventeen parts by weight of whiting and sixteen parts linseed oil. This paste kept soft in a sealed metal package for over six months. The utmost precaution, however, is necessary to keep out any resinous matter. Bright red barrel paints that always have the so-called gloss oil (rosin and benzine liquid) for their vehicle could not be made with red lead and eosine vermillions as the coloring principle, as they would invariably solidify under such conditions.