These are in paste form furnished in various sizes and styles of packages. The grinding is usually done in a careless way, but more often the goods are simply put through a mixer, and very frequently it may be discovered, that the pigments are not mixed with pure linseed oil, but in a linseed oil emulsion, carrying as much as 33% water. The following formulas, while not prohibitive for cost, are based on pure linseed oil as vehicle.

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100 pounds basic lead sulphate (sublimed lead);

25 "

American zinc oxide;

25 "

whiting, common;

25 "

Indian red, deep (American);

275 "

natural barytes, ordinary fine;

50 "

raw linseed oil;

500 pounds finished product.

If the Indian red is in fine division, a very thorough mixing will make this paste smooth enough and thus obviate the necessity for grinding in a mill. The sublimed lead may be replaced by basic lead carbonate (white lead).