Caul

A piece of wood used between the clamps and veneer to clamp thin veneer to its place.

Cavetto

A hollow molding, used generally in cornices.

Ceiling

Narrow matched boards; sheathing; the surface which encloses the upper side of a room.

Center Hung Sash

A sash hung on its centers so that it swings horizontally.

Chamfer

A bevel upon the corner of a square piece of wood.

Chancel

The space between the altar and the rail inclosing it.

Chaptrel

The capital of a pier or pilaster, which receives an arch. ( Chatters. The splinters which are broken off if end wood is planed unskillfully.

Checks

Splits or cracks in a board, generally called shakes.

Cheek, or Side Cut

The cut made upon the side of a rafter to allow it to fit against the piece with which it intersects.

Chord

Applied to an arch. The span or the distance between its supports.

Cinquefoil

An ornamental foliage having live points or cusps.

Clamp

A device used to strengthen, or to hold in place.

Clapboards

The outside covering of a house; siding.

Clustered Column

One composed really or apparently of a number of columns together.

Columns

A support, generally cylindrical in section, for roofs, ceilings, etc., composed of base, shaft, and capital.

Combination Frame

A combination of the principal features of the full and balloon frames.

Composite Order

A combination of the Ionic and Corinthian orders.

Concrete

A combination of sand, broken stone, and cement used in foundations, building construction, and for walks.

Conductors

Pipes for the purpose of conducting water from a roof to the ground, or to a receptacle or drain; a downspout.

Console

A bracket, or projecting ornament on the keystone of an arch, often used to support small cornices.

Coping

The highest, or covering course of masonry. Often beveled to carry the water away; also called capping.

Corbel

A bracket used to support arches, statuary, etc.

Core

The basis of veneer work, usually of soft wood, thoroughly seasoned.

Corinthian Order

The most delicate and elaborate of the orders. The order which governed much of the later Grecian architecture.

Corner Board

The casing which finishes the corner of a frame house.

Cornice

Any molded projection which finishes the top of the piece of work upon which it is used.

Box Cornice

The form of cornice which is finished under the eaves, or boxed in. Open Cornice. A form of cornice which allows the ends, or lookouts of the rafters to be seen.

Corona

The principal projection of a cornice.

Counter Flashings

Used to prevent water from entering the top edge of the vertical side of a roof flashing. Also they allow expansion and contraction without danger of breaking the flashing.

Cove

An arch or hollow molding where the ceilings connect with the walls.

Cricket

A piece of wood fitted between a slanting roof and a vertical surface to carry the water away from the joint; a saddle. See Arris Fillet.

Crocket

An ornament to represent foliage; much used upon Gothic buildings.

Crowning Side or Edge

The side or edge which is rounding, or of convex shape. Generally applied to the edges of boards, or to any surface which is higher in the middle than at the sides.

Crown-post

The middle post of a trussed roof; a king-post.

Cupola

A domelike structure upon the top of a building; a term commonly applied to a small tower or turret.

Curb Plate

The plate in a curb roof which receives the upper rafters.

Curb Roof

A roof formed by two sets of rafters meeting at an angle and supported at the joint by a curb plate.

Curb Stairs

Stairs with a closed string.

Cyma

A molding composed of a hollow and a round; an ogee.

Dado

The part of a pedestal of a column which is between the base and the cornice, under the base of the column itself; the panel work or other method of filling between the base board and the cap molding or chair rail.

Dado, Rake

Dado extending along a flight of stairs, the rails parallel with the pitch of the stairs and the stiles, muntins, and panels running plumb.

Deadening

Construction intended to prevent the passage of sound.

Deck

A flat place upon the roof of a building.

Dentils

Formed by a series of blocks of different shapes, generally rectangular, and used in the cornices of the Ionic, Corinthian, and composite orders.

Doric Order

Distinguished for its simplicity and strength.

Dormer Window

A window placed upon a roof, the frame being vertical, and the plate parallel with the main plates of the house.

Dowel

A round stick, commonly used in gluing up, as a substitute for a mortise joint, and in strengthening the joints in a wide board.

Down Cut

The vertical cut of rafters. Also called the plumb, or ridge cut.

Drip

The projection of a window sill or water table to allow the water to drip clear of the side of the house below it. .

Duramen

Heart wood.

Easement

A section of the handrail for stairs which allows the hand to glide easily from one level to another, or around an angle; an ease-off.

Echinus

A molding of the shape of the ovolo or quarter round, which is decorated with an egg and dart design.

Eight-square

Of octagonal shape.

End for End

Reversing ends.

Engaged Columns

Columns sunk partly into the wall to which they are attached.

Entablature

The part of either of the orders of architecture which is above the capital, including the architrave, frieze, and cornice.