Putlog

A piece of timber supporting the planks of a staging, one end of which rests in a hole in the wall left for it, and the other upon the ledger board.

Quarter Round

See Ovolo.

Queen-post

A post framed between the tie-beam and the rafter.

Quirk

A small acute member of a molding.

Rabbet, or Rebate

A corner, cut out of a piece of wood.

Rafters

Common. Those which run square with the plate and extend to the ridge. Cripple. Those which cut between a valley and hi]) rafters. Hip. Those extending from the outside angle of the plates toward the apex of the roof. Jacks. Those square with the plate and intersecting with the hip rafter. Valley. Those extending from an inside angle of the plates toward the ridge or center line of the house.

Rail

The horizontal members of a balustrade, or panelwork.

Rail Bolt

A specially shaped bolt which is used to strengthen the joint of a rail, or to fasten it to the stair post.

Rake

Work extending in an oblique direction, as rake dado, or molding.

Ramped Rail

A veranda rail curved upward near its end to which is joined a straight piece of the same molding.

Recess

Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall; an alcove; a niche.

Relish

The short tenon between the edge of the tenon and the edge of the rail; used upon the top and bottom rails of panelwork.

Return

The continuation of a molding or finish of any kind in a different direction.

Reveal

The brick or stonework visible between a window frame and the face of the wall.

Ribband

See Ledger Board.

Ridge Cut

See Plumb Cut.

Riser

The vertical board between two treads of a flight of stairs.

Riser Line

The line formed by the face of the riser.

Rowlock Arch

An arch preventing the weight of the wall above from bearing entirely upon the lintel, often called a relieving arch.

Rubble

Masonry of uncut stone.

Saddle

A piece of wood fitted to carry water away from a slanting roof and a vertical surface. See Cricket; Arris Fillet.

Saddle Board

The finish of the ridge of a pitch roof house.

Sawing

Plain. Lumber sawed regardless of the grain, the log simply squared and sawed to the desired thicknesses; sometimes called slash or bastard sawed. Quartered. Sawed as nearly parallel to the medullary rays as possible; much used in woods with a coarse medullary ray, and for lumber which has to stand hard usage or resist trying conditions. Also called rift sawed, and comb or vertical grain.

Scaffold

Staging. A temporary structure to allow the workmen to reach a high place.

Scale

A short measurement used as a proportionate part of a larger dimension.

Scantling

Pieces of light framing material.

Scarfing

A joint between two pieces of wood which allows them to be spliced lengthways.

Scotia

A hollow molding used as part of a cornice, and frequently under the nosing of a stair tread. A cove molding.

Scribing

Fitting a piece to an irregular surface.

Scroll

A spiral ornament.

Seat Cut or Plate Cut

The cut at the bottom end of a rafter to allow it to fit upon the plate.

Seat of Rafter

The horizontal cut upon the bottom end of a rafter which rests upon the top of the plate.

Settings

Masonry for installing a furnace, fireplace, or other work which is supported by masonry.

Shakes

Imperfections in timber caused during the growth of the tree by high winds or imperfect conditions of growth.

Sheathing

Ceiling or narrow matched boards; the term is often applied to covering boards or sheeting.

Sheathing Paper

The paper used under the clapboards to assist in making the house warmer; building paper.

Sheathing Sheeting

Roofing boards; generally applied to narrow boards laid with a space between them.

Siding

The outside finish between the casings; clapboards.

Sills

The timbers of a house resting upon the foundations.

Sizing

Working material to the desired size; a coating of glue, shellac, or other substance applied to a surface to prepare it for painting or other method of finish.

Skewback

The stone upon which an arch rests, shaped to resist the thrust.

Slip Stone

A whetstone of a form to fit irregularly shaped tools.

Soffit

The under side of stairways, arches, cornices, etc.

Spalls

The splinters caused by corners rubbing together; stone cuttings or chips.

Span

The distance between the bearings of a timber or arch.

Specifications

The written or printed directions regarding the details of a building or other construction.

Spire

The tapering portion of a steeple.

Splash Board

A board arranged to prevent the splashing of water from damaging a building.

Splayed Jamb

A jamb, the face of which is set at an angle of other than 90° with the face of the wall.

Splicing

Joining wood lengthways.

Square

A tool used by mechanics to obtain accuracy; a term applied to a surface including 100 square feet.

Staff Bead

The molding between a window or door frame and the masonry of a brick or stone building.

Stair-posts

Gallery. Situated at the end of the landing or gallery which supports the stairs, and connected with the landing post by the gallery rail.

Landing

The post at the head of an ordinary flight of stairs. Newel. The main post at the bottom of the flight.

See Newel

Platform. The post supporting the stair stringers when the angle is turned by a platform.

Starting

The post used to start the stairs from the second floor. Winder. The post to receive the risers of the winding treads.