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Constructive Carpentry | by Charles A. King



Before undertaking the work included in the following pages, the student should have passed through that contained in "Elements of Woodwork" and "Elements of Construction," or their equivalent. In preparing the material for this book, it has been the author's first purpose to arrange and present the subjects in such a manner that they will be easily adaptable to use in technical schools for students of architecture and engineering, and in trade and industrial schools for the teaching of the principles and methods of building construction, to students who plan to make carpentry a means of livelihood.

TitleConstructive Carpentry
AuthorCharles A. King
PublisherAmerican Book Company
Year1912
Copyright1912, Charles A. King
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By Charles A. King, Director Of Manual Training Eastern High School, Bay City, Michigan

King's Series In Woodwork And Carpentry

Elements Of Woodwork, Elements Of Construction, Constructive Carpentry, Inside Finishing, Handbook For Teachers

King's Series In Woodwork And Carpentry, Constructive Carpentry
-Preface To The Series
This series consists of five volumes, four of which are intended as textbooks for pupils in manual-training, industrial, trade, technical, or normal schools. The fifth book of the series, the Handboo...
-Preface To Constructive Carpentry
Before undertaking the work included in the following pages, the student should have passed through that contained in Elements of Woodwork and Elements of Construction, or their equivalent. In pr...
-1. Building Sites
Building Sites. (A.) In selecting the site for a dwelling, the most important considerations are those relating to its hygienic aspects. In order to insure that the flow of the surface water will be a...
-2. Subsoil
Subsoil. As the subsoil has a great deal to do with the foundation, it is important to know the nature of the ground upon which the building rests, though it is usually the architect who decides the d...
-3. Laying Out The Foundation
Laying Out The Foundation. (A.) In laying out the foundation of a building where the lots are platted and the streets laid out, the front of the house generally should be parallel to the side of the l...
-5. Ledges
Ledges. A ledge never should be allowed to run through the cellar wall, as water will seep into the cellar through minute crevices in the rock; it should always be cut off, and the cellar wall built i...
-6. Footing Courses
Footing Courses. Unless the footing course rests upon solid rock or upon clay, it should be considerably wider than the foundation upon each side, and should be made of large flat rocks, which have a ...
-8. Damp Proofing
Damp Proofing. Dampness in a cellar may be due to different causes; generally the safest way to insure a reasonably dry cellar is to drain it from the outside, thereby preventing the water from soakin...
-9. Brickwork
Brickwork. Brick in common use has far greater resistance to fire than has stone and is for that reason, if for no other, better adapted for use in the construction of warehouses, common buildings, c...
-10. Bonding
Bonding. (A.) Bonding is the term applied to the method of laying bricks by which the inside and outside walls are fastened together and at the corners to strengthen them. Bricks which are laid with t...
-12. Openings
Openings. Unless the tops or openings in a brick wall are well arched, or have a stone, metal, or wood lintel showing in the face of the wall, they should have a beam of steel, or of thoroughly season...
-13. Corbelling
Corbelling. Corbelling (Fig. 17) gives a better support for timbers to rest upon. This often is made a place of decoration, or part of a cornice, or the base of the spring of an arch. 14. Brick walls....
-15. Chimneys
Chimneys. Chimneys should extend above adjacent ridges to avoid a down draft. One or two bricks should be left out at the bottom of the flue, to allow it to be cleaned easily and the hole should be fi...
-16. The Carpenter And The Mason
The Carpenter And The Mason. In erecting a brick building, the carpenter should have the window and door frames ready to set when the mason is ready for them, and should assist in setting them. He als...
-17. The Full Frame
The Full Frame. Fig. 19 illustrates the joint forming the basis of construction of the heavier members of a full frame house (Fig. 20) in which every joint is a mortise and tenon joint, a pin being dr...
-18. The Half Frame
The Half Frame. The combination, or half frame, a combination of the full and balloon frames, is quite generally used in the best class of dwellings, and other light frame buildings. It follows the fu...
-19. The Balloon Frame
The Balloon Frame. The balloon frame (Fig. 21) is built by spiking or nailing all timbers together, and is the cheapest form of construction for a frame house. The studs are usually continuous from th...
-20. Sills
Sills. In framing the sills of a house the corner joints usually are made by being halved together as at a, Fig. 22. The sills of a heavy building are frequently fitted together by an open mortised jo...
-21. Corner Posts
Corner Posts. The corner posts of a full or of a half frame house are framed at the girts by a mortise and tenon joint, the tops of the raised girts being flush with the floor joists, as at w, Fig. 20...
-22. Braces
Braces. In making the cuts, and finding the lengths of braces shown in Figs. 20 and 21, the steel square is used. All measurements generally are worked out upon the scale of 1 to 1'. The square most ...
-23. Floor Joists
Floor Joists. The methods of resting the floor joists upon the sills and girders are shown in Fig. 29: a is the method frequently used upon cheap buildings; b, upon the best class of buildings; and c ...
-24. Studding
Studding. The studs of a house are generally spticed 16 between centers, in order to accommodate the laths, which are 4' long. It is always best to use stuff which has been run through a planer and s...
-25. Porch Construction
Porch Construction. The floor joists of a porch should run parallel with the house (see Fig. 33), as the floor boards should be laid square with the front, and should pitch 1 in 5' in order to allow ...
-26. Trusses
Trusses. It is not within the province of this book to discuss the stresses which a truss is called upon to resist, or to enter upon the engineering problems which are necessary to be solved in order ...
-27. Timbers
Timbers. The sizes of timbers are governed by the needs of the building. The sills of a moderate-sized dwelling should be 4 X 6, 6 X 6, or 6 X 8. The plates should be 4 X 4 or 4 X 6, or the ...
-28. Selection Of Timbers
Selection Of Timbers. The selection of timbers is a matter of great importance in the building of a house. None should be used which show any signs of decay, or which have a sour or musty smell, as t...
-Chapter III. Mill Construction
29. Introduction. The type of building known as the slow-burning, or mitt construction, recommended by the Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies of Boston, Massachusetts, is used extensiv...
-30. Details
Details. (A.) The details of this form of construction are shown by the three accompanying illustrations. Fig. 41 shows the floor plan of one end of a small factory building, and the horizontal sectio...
-31. Steel Square
Steel Square. (A.) The blade of the standard steel square (Fig. 45) is 24 long, 2 wide; the tongue is 14, 16, or 18 long and 1 wide. The widths are so made for the sake of quick and convenient ...
-32. Bevel Board
Bevel Board. In working out steel square problems, use a planed board, 12 or 15 wide, and about 3' long, which we will call a bevel board. One edge of this board should be jointed perfectly straigh...
-33. To Mark Divisions
To Mark Divisions. Lay the square upon the board, as shown in Fig. 47. To divide the board into any number of equal parts, say 10, mark the inch divisions upon the board. By this method a board may be...
-34. To Lay Out Regular Polygons With A Steel Square
To Lay Out Regular Polygons With A Steel Square. (A.) Any regular polygon, or any polygon of equal sides and angles, may be inscribed within a circle. Each side of such a polygon forms the base of an ...
-35. To Bisect An Angle
To Bisect An Angle. - (Fig. 53.) Measure equal distances on each side of the angle, abc, for points d and e. With the same figure upon each side of the square held to the points d and e, f of the squa...
-36. To Find The Center Of A Circle From Three Given Points
To Find The Center Of A Circle From Three Given Points. (Fig. 54.) Given points a, b, c, connect a, b and b, c with straight lines. Find exact centers of these lines, and mark them d, and e, respecti...
-37. To Construct The Greatest Square Within A Given Circle
To Construct The Greatest Square Within A Given Circle. -(Fig. 55.) Draw the diameter, ab, and place the angle of the square upon the circumference within the circle, moving the square until equal fig...
-38. To Construct A Square
To Construct A Square. (A.) area of a given square. (Fig. 56*.) Given the square a b c d, lay the framing square upon one side, say ab, with equal figures upon To. and Bl., resting upon a and b. Lin...
-39. To Construct A Circle Which Shall Equal The Area Of Two Given Circles
To Construct A Circle Which Shall Equal The Area Of Two Given Circles. - (Fig. 58.) With the diameter of the smaller circle a upon To., and that of the larger circle b upon Bl., the bridge measure, c,...
-40. To Octagon A Given Timber
To Octagon A Given Timber. (A.) Method 1. - (Fig. 59.) In the middle of To., upon the back of the square, will be found a series of dots, a-b, forming the octagon scale. Fig. 58. - Construction of ...
-41. Given The Side Of An Octagon, To Find The Width
Given The Side Of An Octagon, To Find The Width. (Fig. 63.) Given the side ab of the octagon, locate point c by resting equal figures of Bl. and To. upon a and b. Apply Formula 1. W = width of octa...
-42. Given The Side Of A Hexagon, To Find The Width
Given The Side Of A Hexagon, To Find The Width. (Fig. 64.) Lay out an equilateral triangle, upon bevel board, with the base ab, equal to the given side of the hexagon. Apply Formula 2. W = width of he...
-44. Given The Side Of A Hexagon, To Find The Diagonal
Given The Side Of A Hexagon, To Find The Diagonal. (Fig. 64.) Apply Formula 4. D = diagonal. G = given side, ab. Formula 4. D = 2 G. Fig. 64. - Given The Side Of A Hexagon To Find The Width. F...
-45. Given The Width Of An Octagon, To Find The Length Of A Side
Given The Width Of An Octagon, To Find The Length Of A Side. (Fig. 63.) Draw two parallel lines as far apart as the width of the octagon, generally using the inch scale. Use the figures 7 and 17, as ...
-46. Given The Width Of A Hexagon, To Find The Side
Given The Width Of A Hexagon, To Find The Side. (Fig. 66.) S = side of hexagon. Method 1. Draw the line ab = given width of the hexagon. Erect an indefinite perpendicular, ac, from a. Let 12 Bl. re...
-Chapter V. Roof Construction
47. Pitches of roofs. There are three terms used in describing the dimensions of roof pitches: the run (ab, Fig. 67) is the horizontal distance between the plate, b, and the point a, directly under...
-49. The Plan Of The Roof
The Plan Of The Roof. (Fig. 70). In laying out the plan of a roof, it is best to be governed by the greatest rectangle that can be obtained from the plan of the house, angles and projections being fra...
-50. The Common Rafter
The Common Rafter. (Fig. 71). (A.) The length of a common rafter is not from the apex of the roof to the eaves, but from the apex of the roof to a point directly over the plate, upon the top edge of t...
-51. Lookouts
Lookouts. Lookouts for the common rafters of a box-corniced house are usually part of the same stick as the rafter, if they do not require too long a stick to be practicable; but if an open cornice is...
-52. The Ridge
The Ridge. Many houses are built without a ridge, the common rafters fitting against each other, and being spiked there, but it is better to use one, especially upon a hip roof, where it is almost a n...
-53. Hip Rafters
Hip Rafters. (A.) By referring to Fig. 70, it will be seen that the plan, base line, or the run of a hip rafter, a, of a rectangular roof of equal pitches, is at an angle of 45 with the plates of...
-53. Hip Rafters. Continued
As we have found, the run of a hip rafter equals the diagonal of a square formed by the run of the common rafters. Therefore, returning to the 24' house mentioned in B, Topic 50, we find that the run ...
-54. Valley Rafters
Valley Rafters. The lengths and cuts of valley rafters (gh, Fig. 80) may be found by the same methods as those used in finding the lengths and cuts of hip rafters : if the valley is to fit against the...
-55. Jack Rafters
Jack Rafters. The length of jack rafters may be obtained by using Formula 24, which is applicable to all pitches and angles. R4 = run of jack rafter. A2 = rise of jack rafter. C = constant, which m...
-56. Cripple Rafters
Cripple Rafters. - In finding the length of the cripple rafters of a rectangular roof, in which a hip and the valley rafters are parallel, as at p, Fig. 80, the run equals the projection in the plan o...
-57. Collar Beams
Collar Beams. The method of finding the lengths and of cutting collar beams is illustrated in Fig. 85. The distance ab stands in the same proportion to the length of the collar or tie beam as the rise...
-58. Struts
Struts. The position and use of a strut are shown in Fig. 86 at a and b. A strut is often used as the support for a purlin, as at c, in which case it is cut short enough to allow for the thickness of...
-59. Purlins And Hoppers
Purlins And Hoppers. (A.) The position and use of purlins are shown at c, Fig. 86. Their lengths may be found by calculations based upon the known length of the plates. If placed as shown in Fig. 86, ...
-60. Octagon Rafters
Octagon Rafters. There are two ways of framing the apex of an octagonal roof,' one of which is illustrated in Fig. 92. In this it will be seen that the rafters are framed in pairs, the first pair bein...
-61. Hexagonal Rafters
Hexagonal Rafters. In cutting the rafters for a hexagonal roof, the same formulas and methods may be used as described in the previous topic. The first pair of rafters may be cut the same as a pair of...
-62. The King-Post Roof
The King-Post Roof. Another method of framing a pyramidal, or circular roof, known as the king-post method, is shown in Fig. 94. This is preferred by many workmen, as all of the rafters may be cut a...
-63. Backing An Octagon Hip Rafter
Backing An Octagon Hip Rafter. The backing of the hip rafters of polygonal roofs may be obtained by using the following formulas :- Fig. 94. - A King-post Roof. Fig. 95. - A King-Post And Finial...
-64. Octagon Cheek Cuts
Octagon Cheek Cuts. In cutting the cheeks of jack rafters for a polygonal roof, the method illustrated by b, Fig. 79, should be employed. The distance ab should be measured parallel with the plumb cut...
-65. Irregular Roofs
Irregular Roofs. In laying out the rafters of an irregularly shaped house or one with unequal pitches, a plan should be drawn showing every rafter in the roof, and the angles of their intersections wi...
-67. Curvilinear Hips
Curvilinear Hips. The hip rafter of a French or other curvilinear roof may be laid out as shown in Fig. 96. The outline of the common rafter is shown by ac, its run being ab. The run, bd, of the hip s...
-68. Flat Roof
Flat Roof. Any roof of less rise than 1' in 9' is called a flat roof; and the same methods of finding the lengths and cuts of the rafters may be used as upon a pitch roof. 69. Dormer windows are of m...
-Chapter VI. Boarding In. Outside Finish
70. Boarding in. (A.) In the warmer sections of the country, the houses are built with nothing upon the outside studding except the siding, but in the North, 1 boards planed to an even thickness are ...
-71. Cornices
Cornices. (A.) The cornice, or eave finish, is next in order after the house is boarded in and the roof covered, as it is essential that the roofing should be laid as soon as possible, not only to pro...
-72. Gable Finish
Gable Finish. Gable finish should correspond with that of the sides of the house in all of its details; and if a box cornice is to be returned upon the gable, the return should be the same as the proj...
-73. Outside Finish
Outside Finish. (A.) The lumber used for outside finish should be selected for its ability to stand the weather and to hold its shape. Only well-seasoned wood should be used. The most satisfactory kin...
-74. Conductors
Conductors. Conductors, or downspouts, are made of round, or corrugated, galvanized iron, and are held in their places by brackets adapted to the shape of the conductor. The corrugated spouts are bett...
-75. Finials
Finials. Finials made of sheet metal are used as an ornament to finish the peaks of gables, turret roofs, etc. They may be made of almost any design, but as they are kept in stock in many different fo...
-76. Circular Gutters
Circular Gutters. Circular gutters and moldings may he made by three different methods, one of which, and perhaps the most common, is to saw a plank of the right thickness to the desired sweep, and wo...
-77. Rake Moldings
Rake Moldings. (A). The method of finding the shape of rake moldings is illustrated in Fig. 112, all of the moldings but the regular patterns being worked out by hand if there is no mill conveniently ...
-78. Siding A Circular Tower
Siding A Circular Tower. In siding a circular tower with beveled siding, it will be found necessary to cut the lower edge of each piece to such a form that when it is in place it will be parallel with...
-79. Scribing
Scribing. Scribing is the term applied to the process of fitting wood to the irregularities of any uneven surface, as, for instance, in fitting a piece of ceiling against a stone wall, as in Fig. 116....
-80. Dome Roof
Dome Roof. In boarding a dome roof, it is the usual custom to lay the boards vertically, as shown in Fig.117, as it is more economical than to cover it horizontally, since by the latter method each co...
-81. Shingles
Shingles. (A.) In shingling a roof, the shingles should be laid from 4 to 5 to the weather; the steeper the pitch, the greater the exposure which may be allowed. A quarter pitch roof should bo laid ...
-82. Flashing
Flashing. Flashing is the term applied to the process of making a joint water-tight, by fitting tin, lead, zinc, or copper in such a way as to prevent the water from running into the joint. The flashi...
-83. Metal Roofs
Metal Roofs. (A.) In recent years, steel roofs have come into use in different parts of the country. The standing-seam steel roof (Fig. 129, a) is well adapted for use upon barns and warehouses. If us...
-84. Slate Roof
Slate Roof. A slate roof always should be laid by a thoroughly competent and reliable man, as any skimping of the work may not be discovered until the roof has served a part of its usefulness. It is ...
-85. Gravel Roofs
Gravel Roofs. Gravel roofs are used upon flat-roofed buildings. First it is necessary that there should be a smooth, tight roof upon which this is to be laid. There should be four thicknesses of roofi...
-86. Laths
Laths. (A.) Laths are made of poplar, pine, spruce, oak, or almost any wood which may be desired, though the harder woods are less desirable, for if not thoroughly seasoned before laying, they may twi...
-87. Corner Finish
Corner Finish. Some form of corner finish is a necessity upon outside corners of a plastered wall, and galvanized metal corners should be nailed upon the laths. Of these there are several kinds, one o...
-88. Grounds
Grounds. Grounds should be nailed upon the studs around all openings before the house is lathed, at a distance sufficient to allow the casings to cover them, as shown at a, Fig. 135. They are also nai...
-89. Plastering
Plastering. (A.) In making mortar for plastering, it is always wise to purchase some well-known make of lime, as it varies in quality and strength; but it is usually safe to allow 3 bushels of sand to...
-90. Back Plastering
Back Plastering. Back plastering consists of laying a coat of plaster upon laths which are nailed upon the inside of the outside boarding between the studs, and is frequently used in the outside walls...
-91. Deadening
Deadening. By deadening is meant the constructing of floors and partitions so that the passage of sound is reduced to a minimum. Figure 136 shows a method in which a weak mortar, or mineral wool, is t...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry
Abacus The upper plate of a capital, upon which the architrave rests. Abutment A foundation; a support. Acanthus A leaf, the conventionalized form of which is used upon the Corinthian and composi...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 2
Caul A piece of wood used between the clamps and veneer to clamp thin veneer to its place. Cavetto A hollow molding, used generally in cornices. Ceiling Narrow matched boards; sheathing; the surf...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 3
Facade Front view, or elevation of an edifice. Face Side, or Edge The side or edge from which all of the measurements, and all tests for accuracy are made. Fair When a piece of wood or work is pe...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 4
Rub Joint A glue joint made by fitting carefully the edges together, spreading glue between them, and rubbing the pieces back and forth until the pieces are well rubbed together. Scarfed Joint A t...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 5
Putlog A piece of timber supporting the planks of a staging, one end of which rests in a hole in the wall left for it, and the other upon the ledger board. Quarter Round See Ovolo. Queen-post A p...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 6
Stairs Box. Those built between walls. Dog-leg The face stringer of one flight directly under that of the one above. Platform. A tread which turns an angle in the stairs with but one riser. Straig...
-Glossary Of Terms Used In Architecture And Carpentry. Part 7
Williams & Rogers Commercial Publications The success and popularity of these books for business colleges, and for commercial departments of high schools, are well-known. No other series of a similar...







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