The Carpenter And The Mason. In erecting a brick building, the carpenter should have the window and door frames ready to set when the mason is ready for them, and should assist in setting them. He also should see that they are properly stayed, and held in their places until the mason has built around them enough to hold them firmly.

Floor joists, wooden brick, and all other woodwork furnished by the carpenter should be ready to set when the mason is ready for them. Usually it is not the carpenter's place to furnish centers for arches, or to erect scaffolds for masons, though the customs in regard to these points vary in different localities.

Suggestive Exercises

1. What should be considered first in selecting the location of a dwelling? How should the land lie in relation to the house? Should a house be located near a pool of stagnant water? What are the objections to building a house in a deep grove ? Are there any objections to a few shade trees?

2. How should the subsoil be investigated? Who usually does this? What mistake is sometimes made in building upon rock? What load will clay support generally? How may a clayey subsoil upon the side of a hill be made safe ? What is the best soil upon which to build? Why? What is its resistance? How should sand be treated to prepare it for supporting a building? Compare sand with gravel. Describe piling.

3. With which side of a lot should the front of the house generally be parallel? How should a house be located upon an irregularly shaped lot ? What is the effect upon the property of a neighborhood, if the houses are arranged with no thought of regularity? What is the general shape to be located first in staking out a building? Describe the method of doing this. How can the accuracy of the work be proved?

4. What regulates the size of the excavation at the bottom ? Should the sides of the excavation generally be plumb ? What should be the relation of the frost line to the footing course?

5. Should a ledge be allowed to extend through the cellar wall? Why? How should a ledge be dealt with?

6. Should the footing course generally be as wide as the foundation ? How should a footing course be laid upon a side hill? Should stones rest directly upon each other? Why? Should stone chips be depended upon to make a strong wall ? How are cheap foundations laid ? Is it a safe plan? How should the footing courses be laid, if a wall rests upon both sand and bedrock? How are the footing courses of heavy buildings sometimes put in?

7. What is meant by rubble work? How should it be bonded? What is meant by ashlar? coursed ashlar? broken ashlar? draft line? pitch, or rock face? How should stratified stones be laid? Why?

8. What is the safest way to insure a dry cellar ? What is the least pitch a drain should have ? How should the outside of the wall be treated? How should the top of the footing course be treated? If a ledge comes through the cellar floor, how should it be treated ? How may a cellar floor be drained after the house is built ?

9. Why are bricks better for general building purposes than stone ? Compare common and face bricks. What kind of bricks should be used where a great heat is to be resisted ? How should a brick be tested ? Describe the usual methods of laying brick. What should be the proportions of lime and sand in mixing mortar? Describe grouting. Give the reasons for sorting bricks. How should bricks be treated in dry weather before laying? Is it a good plan to lay brick in very cold weather ? How may it be done ?

10. What is meant by bonding? What is a header? a stretcher? Describe the English bond; the American bond; a metal bond; a veneered wall.

11. What is meant by anchoring a building? What is meant by a splayed floor timber? Why should an anchor easily detach itself from the wall?

12. How should the tops of openings be treated ?

13. What is corbelling?

14. What is the usual thickness of the brick wall of a dwelling house? How should the tops of the walls be treated? Why? Describe a wooden brick. Why not plaster a thin wall directly upon the inside? How should it be done? Describe a ventilated wall. Is it best to paint a brick wall? How should bricks be laid in a wall which is to be plastered?

15. How should the height of a chimney compare with that of adjacent ridges? Should a high chimney be of the same thickness throughout? Why? Which is the better location for a chimney,in the center, or in the outside wall of the house? Should a chimney be plastered on the inside?

16. How should the carpenter assist the mason?