This section is from the book "Lathe Design, Construction And Operation, With Practical Examples Of The Lathe Work", by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also available from Amazon: Lathe Design: Construction And Operation.
The outside grinder for general work is clamped directly upon the tool-slide and has a vertical screw adjustment. It is arranged so that an emery wheel can be used on either end, and there is a taper hole in the front of the spindle to take arbors for small laps.
Two methods of thread cutting are provided for. The first is on the Fox lathe principle and is attached to the T-groove on the back of the bed. Any even multiple of the lead screw thread up to ten times can be cut, and with a few extra lead screws all ordinary threads can be cut. This method of thread cutting is the most rapid, but under conditions in which a great variety of threads must be cut some machinists will prefer to use the slide-rest. By this style of thread-cutting attachments this lathe will cut all threads from 5 to 100 per inch, and all between 5 and 50 to the centimeter can be cut.
There is also a special milling attachment, which is a stand consisting of a base made to take the regular head-stock, and is provided with a slide which takes the regular slide-rest. The vertical slide has both a screw and lever feed, so arranged that the change from one to the other can be made instantly. A vise for plain milling, or an indexing head for gear cutting and cutter making, can be attached to the tool-slide of the slide-rest. This combination makes a practical bench milling machine upon which a great variety of work can be done.
While the descriptions of engine lathes are confined to the lathe proper, leaving the subject of their attachments and accessories to be treated in another chapter, it seems advisable to include in the above description the various attachments of this bench lathe, as they are essentially different from those used upon or in connection with an engine lathe, and for different purposes.
In addition to the attachments above described it is frequently the case that others for special work are frequently devised and added to the bench lathe equipment, making it a very useful machine and capable of performing a great many different operations, among them many which cannot be performed on the regular engine lathe without the aid of expensive attachments and fixtures. These qualities make it one of the most useful machines in the shop, especially where small experimental work and fine tool making, jigs, and fixtures are to be produced.
A plain 10-inch swing wood-turning lathe for light manufacturing work or for pattern work is shown in Fig. 284, which possesses some peculiar features worthy of attention. The lathe is built by the F. E. Reed Company.
One of the special features of this lathe is the manner of constructing the head-stock, a vertical section of which is given in Fig. 285. The spindle has a single bearing in the head-stock, which extends over a large proportion of its length, the face-plate being attached to the front end as usual, and the three-step cone pulley attached at the opposite end, fitting upon the spindle for a distance about equal to one of its steps and carried by a flanged collar which is fastened to it by screws and resting against a fiber washer with the wear or end thrust taken up by a suitable adjustable collar at the end of the spindle.
There is a 9/16 -inch hole through the spindle, whose bearing in the head is l 3/16 inches diameter and 7 1/8 inches long, while there is also an outer bearing, formed by the small end of the cone running on the outside of the head-stock, 2 1/16 inches diameter and 3f inches long, giving 50 square inches of wearing surface in the head-stock, which is at least three times more than is obtained in the head-stock of an ordinary wood-turning lathe of this swing.
Fig. 284. - 10-inch Swing Wood Turning Lathe, built by the F. E. Reed Company.
The head spindle is a crucible steel forging, and runs in compressed genuine babbitt metal bearings, special care being used to make the inner and the outer bearings truly cylindrical and concentric with each other.
As to the wearing qualities of these head-stocks the manufacturers say:
"We have made and sold over six hundred of these lathes during the last eight years. For over six years we have had one of them in constant use in our works as a polishing lathe. This is very severe usage for a lathe, but during all this time it has required absolutely no repairs, and no special attention beyond seeing that it was kept properly oiled with a good quality of lubricating oil. We have a large number of most excellent testimonials from schools that have used these wood lathes for a number of years."
The countershaft is of very simple construction and of similar design to the head-stock. In place of the usual tight and loose pulley with the belt operated by a shipper rod and lever, the belt fork is handled by a vertical rod, the lower end of which hangs in a position convenient to the operator, who has only to give it a turn to the right or left by means of a short handle to start and stop the lathe.
Fig. 285. - Head-Stock of Reed Wood Turning Lathe.
The V's in the bed are inverted, or planed out, and the head and tail stocks are fitted into them, instead of upon them, which is the usual way. This allows a perfectly free and level surface across the top of bed and shelf on back side, without any obstruction, besides protecting the V's from being jammed. The upper angle of V is rounded where it meets the surface of the bed, which also prevents jamming or injury of the bed or V at this place.
The T-rests, instead of being the usual form, are concaved, with a projecting lip on the bottom which serves as a finger gage for the operator while using the turning tool. The T-rest holder is secured to the bed by a clamping device that is neat, strong, and quickly operated. There is a shelf on the back side of the lathe, parallel with the top of the bed, and of the same height; another shelf is also furnished underneath the bed, as shown in the engraving. A hook or holder, with proper support for the same is shown. This is for holding a blue print, or sample of the work, before the operator, and can be raised or lowered. The form of the lathe bed in connection with the extra speed of the legs, and the manner of attaching the lower shelf, all combine to insure steadiness of the lathe when run at the high speed for which it is designed; and each lathe is run five hours at 2,600 revolutions per minute before leaving the works, to see that it is in every respect right.
The workmanship on this lathe is fully up to the standard of the work usually done by this company, which is sufficient guarrantee of its quality.