BRAZIL-WOOD, called also Peroambuco, was supposed by Dr. Bancroft to hare been known as a red dyewood before the discovery of the Brazils, which country, be says, was so named by Europeans from is abounding in this wood. The beat kind in from Pernambuco, where it is called Pao dm rainka, or queen'a wood, and by the natives Ibirapitanga; it is also found in the West Indies generally, and is often called Pernambuoo-wood. The tree is large, crooked, and knotty, and the bark is so thick, that the wood only equals the third or fourth of the eutire diameter; the leaves are of a beautiful red, and exhale an agreeable odour. The Pao da rainhs grows to the diameter of 15 or 16 inches, the Pao Brazil, an inferior kind, to 50 or 60 in. Brazil-wood is a royal monopoly, and the best quality has the imperial brand mark at the end; it is shipped in trimmed sticks, from 1 to 4 in. diam and 3 to 8 ft long, and its colour becomes darker by exposure to the air. Its principal use is for dyeing; the best pieces are selected for violin bows and turning.

Caesalpina echinata, the Ibirapitanga of Plso, yields the Brazil-wood at commerce. De Candolle Inquires whether it to not rather a species of Guilandia. C. crista, a native of the Wert Indies, to called Bresillet, because its wood is reddish-colured like Brazil-wood. C. Sapan to a native chiefly of the Asiatic Isles and of the Malayan Peninsula; in wood to like Brazil-wood, and well known in commerce as Sapan-wood.