ELM (Ulmus), a European timber tree, of which there are five species; mean size, 44 ft. long, 32 in diameter. The heart wood is red brown, darker than oak, the sap yellowish or brownish white, with pores inclining to red; the wood is porous, cross-grained, and shrinks and twists much in drying. Elm is not liable to split, and bears the driving of nails or bolts better than any other timber, and it is exceedingly durable when constantly wet; it is therefore much used for the keels of vessels, and for wet foundations, waterworks, piles, pumps, and boards for coffins; from its toughness, elm is selected for the naves of wheels, shells for tackle-blocks, and sometimes for the gunwales of ships, and also for many purposes of common turnery, as it bean Tory rough usage without splitting.

Wych Elm This sometimes grows to the height of 70 feet, and the diameter of 3 1/2 feet; the branches are principally at the top, the wood is lighter and more yellow in colour than the above, also straighter and finer in the grain. It is tough, similar to young sweet chesnut for bending, and is much used by coachmakers, and by shipwrights for jolly-boats.

Rock Elm appears very like the last; it is extensively used for boat building, and sometimes for archery bows, as it is considered to bend very well.

Ulmus campeatris, is the common small-leaved elm, U. effusa is the spreading-branched, U. glabra is the smooth-leaved,and U. montana the Wych elm. Ulmus Americana or the American elm. is used for the tame purposes as the European aperies, though the wood is inferior in quality. U. fulva and alata are other Ame-rican specides, and several species are found in the Himalayas.