Paper varnish, for paper hangings and similar purposes, is made with 4 lbs. of damar to 1 gallon of turpentine. The damar dissolves very readily in the turpentine, either with moderate agitation or a very gentle heat. Sometimes white or bleached resin is used instead of the damar, or the two are combined.

Water varnish. - All the varieties of lac may be dissolved in nearly boiling water by the addition of ammonia, borax, potash, or soda, but these alkalis all have the effect of rendering the colour of the lac much darker. The solutions may, however, be employed as varnishes, which when dried will resist the application of water sufficiently well to bear washing, especially when the proportion of alkali employed is only just sufficient to cause the dissolution of the lac, and which is also desirable in order to keep the varnish as light coloured as possible. - The least colour is given with diluted water of ammonia, in the proportions of about 16 ounces of ordinary water of ammonia to 7 pints of water and 2 lbs. of pale shell lac, to which about 4 ounces of gum arabic may be added. Borax is, however, more generally used, and the proportions are then 2 lbs. of shell lac, 6 ounces of borax, and 4 ounces of gum arabic to 1 gallon of water. When the varnish is required to be as light-coloured as possible, white lac is employed.

Sealing-ioax varnish, for coating parts of electrical machines and similar purposes, is made by dissolving 2 /2 lbs. of good red sealing wax and 1 1/2 lbs. of shell lac in 1 gallon of spirits of wine.

Black varnish may be made with 3 lbs. of black sealing-wax and 1 lb. of shell lac to the gallon of spirit, or fine lamp black may be mixed with brown hard varnish or lacker, according to the thickness required in the varnish. The interior of telescope tubes are frequently blackened with a dull varnish of this kind, made by mixing lamp black with rather thick brass lacker, as little of the lamp black being employed as will serve to deaden the bright colour of the lacker. Mathematical instruments are sometimes blackened with a similar thin varnish, and the surface is afterwards brightened with one or two coats of lacker applied as usual. Ordinary lamp black, however, generally contains greasy impurities and moisture which render it unfit for varnish purposes, and therefore the best kind should be employed, or the lamp black should be purified by ramming it hard into a close vessel, and afterwards subjecting it to a red heat. In the workshop, when small quantities of lamp black are required, it is frequently made for the occasion, by placing a piece of sheet metal over the flame of an oil lamp. A black varnish, sometimes used for metal works, is made by fusing 3 lbs. of Egyptian asphaltum, and when well dissolved, 1/2 lb. of shell lac and 1 gallon of turpentine are added.